Complete genome sequence of Thioalkalivibrio sp. K90mix.
Bottom Line: Thioalkalivibrio sp.The strain was isolated from a mixture of sediment samples obtained from different soda lakes located in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) based on its extreme potassium carbonate tolerance as an enrichment method.The genome was sequenced within the Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program, because of its relevance to the sustainable removal of sulfide from wastewater and gas streams.
Thioalkalivibrio sp. K90mix is an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, natronophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOxB) belonging to the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae within the Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was isolated from a mixture of sediment samples obtained from different soda lakes located in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) based on its extreme potassium carbonate tolerance as an enrichment method. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain K90mix and its annotation. The genome was sequenced within the Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program, because of its relevance to the sustainable removal of sulfide from wastewater and gas streams.
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Mentions: Thioalkalivibrio sp. K90mix can oxidize sulfide/polysulfide, thiosulfate, sulfite (in vitro) and elemental sulfur to sulfate. Elemental sulfur is formed as an intermediate during sulfide and thiosulfate oxidation at oxygen limitation and near-neutral pH. Figure 5 shows a schematic overview of the different genes that are involved in the oxidation of sulfur compounds. The genome of Thioalkalivibrio sp. K90mix contains genes for flavocytochrome c/sulfide dehydrogenase (TK90_0236), which oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur. It contains an incomplete set of sox genes including soxYZ (TK90_0123 and TK90_0124), soxAX (TK90_0432 and TK90_0433) and two copies of soxB (TK90_0627 and TK90_1150), but is lacking soxCD, which would allow oxidizing the sulfane atom of thiosulfate to the state of elemental sulfur, but no further. However, it does not contain the reverse dissimilatory sulfite reduction pathway to oxidize sulfur to sulfite, which has been found in the genome of “Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus” HLEbGr7 . Absence of dsr genes has also been found for the green sulfur bacterium Chloroherpeton thalassium that can oxidize sulfide to elemental sulfur, but subsequently can only oxidize the produced sulfur very slowly , probably due to the absence of dsr. Frigaard and Dahl  suggested that the presence of a RuBisCo-like protein (RLP) might be involved in sulfur oxidation . Genes encoding for the RuBisCo-like protein were not found, nor were genes encoding sulfur dioxygenase or sulfur oxygenase-reductase, which can oxidize or disproportionate sulfur in several acidophilic bacteria and archaea . However, we found a gene cluster encoding two sulfur transferases (rhd, TK90_0630; sirA, TK90_0631) and a heterodisulfide reductase complex (TK90_0632 - TK90_0637) consisting of hdrA, hdrB, and hdrC (Figure 6). dsrE was missing in this cascade, but was present at 3 other places in the genome (TK_0511, TK_0639, TK90_1244).
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