Waves of retrotransposon expansion remodel genome organization and CTCF binding in multiple mammalian lineages.
Bottom Line: To gain insight into how these DNA elements are conserved and spread through the genome, we defined the full spectrum of CTCF-binding sites, including a 33/34-mer motif, and identified over five thousand highly conserved, robust, and tissue-independent CTCF-binding locations by comparing ChIP-seq data from six mammals.We discovered fossilized repeat elements flanking deeply conserved CTCF-binding regions, indicating that similar retrotransposon expansions occurred hundreds of millions of years ago.Repeat-driven dispersal of CTCF binding is a fundamental, ancient, and still highly active mechanism of genome evolution in mammalian lineages.
Affiliation: Cancer Research UK, Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK.Show MeSH
Mentions: We therefore searched for an alternative mechanism for the de novo creation in a common mammalian ancestor of the thousands of CTCF-binding events now found throughout mammals. Despite the generally high conservation of CTCF motif-word usage, we noted that specific sets of motif-words were overrepresented in rodents (mouse and rat), dog, and opossum (Figure 4A). We found that the vast majority of these overrepresented motif-words are embedded within SINE transposons (Figures 4B and S4).
Affiliation: Cancer Research UK, Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK.