Limits...
Imaging heart development using high-resolution episcopic microscopy.

Mohun TJ, Weninger WJ - Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (2011)

Bottom Line: Development of the heart in vertebrate embryos is a complex process in which the organ is continually remodelled as chambers are formed, valves sculpted and connections established to the developing vascular system.A recurrent challenge in this work is how to integrate studies as diverse as those of cardiac gene function and regulation with an appreciation of the localised interactions between cardiac tissues not to mention the manner in which both may be affected by cardiac function itself.Meeting this challenge requires an accurate way to analyse the changes in 3D morphology of the developing heart, which can be swift or protracted and both dramatic or subtle in consequence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK. tmohun@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Measuring the diameters of the great intrathoracal arteries of a 14.5 dpc mouse foetus. (a) Great intrathoracic arteries (red) in situ. Surface rendered 3D models of the arteries are displayed together with the original HREM section plane and two re-section planes cutting perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the original section plane through the HREM volume data. (b) 3D surface model and two oblique re-section planes. Note that the virtual planes were orientated to cut perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective blood vessel segment through the original volume data. (c) and (d) Virtual section planes shown in (b). aa = ascending aorta, bt = brachiocephalic trunk, lc = left common carotid artery, ls = left subclavian artery, da = descending aorta, pt = pulmonary trunk, pa = pulmonary artery, db = ductus arteriosus (Botalli), av = aortic valve, pv = pulmonary valve, at = atrium, cv = cardiac ventricle, li = liver, r = rib, cl = clavicle, ve = forming vertebrae sc = spinal chord, sg = signal ganglion, t = trachea, e = oesophagus. Scale bar = 200 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368266&req=5

fig0010: Measuring the diameters of the great intrathoracal arteries of a 14.5 dpc mouse foetus. (a) Great intrathoracic arteries (red) in situ. Surface rendered 3D models of the arteries are displayed together with the original HREM section plane and two re-section planes cutting perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the original section plane through the HREM volume data. (b) 3D surface model and two oblique re-section planes. Note that the virtual planes were orientated to cut perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective blood vessel segment through the original volume data. (c) and (d) Virtual section planes shown in (b). aa = ascending aorta, bt = brachiocephalic trunk, lc = left common carotid artery, ls = left subclavian artery, da = descending aorta, pt = pulmonary trunk, pa = pulmonary artery, db = ductus arteriosus (Botalli), av = aortic valve, pv = pulmonary valve, at = atrium, cv = cardiac ventricle, li = liver, r = rib, cl = clavicle, ve = forming vertebrae sc = spinal chord, sg = signal ganglion, t = trachea, e = oesophagus. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Mentions: Similarly, HREM analysis has facilitated quantitative assessment of stenosis or dilation of the great intrathoracic arteries. Coarctation of the aorta or stenosis of the pharyngeal arch arteries and their derivatives often are associated with complex, intra-cardiac and extra-cardiac defects [e.g.] [29,30–33] which can result in prenatal or perinatal lethality. Accurate detection of stenosis in embryonic and foetal blood vessels requires histological sections cut precisely perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the artery being measured. Technically challenging with adult mice, this conventional approach is impossible with mouse embryos. Its digital equivalent is however straightforward with image volume data — and only HREM data currently provides spatial resolution adequate to yield meaningful measurements [34,35] (Figure 2).


Imaging heart development using high-resolution episcopic microscopy.

Mohun TJ, Weninger WJ - Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (2011)

Measuring the diameters of the great intrathoracal arteries of a 14.5 dpc mouse foetus. (a) Great intrathoracic arteries (red) in situ. Surface rendered 3D models of the arteries are displayed together with the original HREM section plane and two re-section planes cutting perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the original section plane through the HREM volume data. (b) 3D surface model and two oblique re-section planes. Note that the virtual planes were orientated to cut perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective blood vessel segment through the original volume data. (c) and (d) Virtual section planes shown in (b). aa = ascending aorta, bt = brachiocephalic trunk, lc = left common carotid artery, ls = left subclavian artery, da = descending aorta, pt = pulmonary trunk, pa = pulmonary artery, db = ductus arteriosus (Botalli), av = aortic valve, pv = pulmonary valve, at = atrium, cv = cardiac ventricle, li = liver, r = rib, cl = clavicle, ve = forming vertebrae sc = spinal chord, sg = signal ganglion, t = trachea, e = oesophagus. Scale bar = 200 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368266&req=5

fig0010: Measuring the diameters of the great intrathoracal arteries of a 14.5 dpc mouse foetus. (a) Great intrathoracic arteries (red) in situ. Surface rendered 3D models of the arteries are displayed together with the original HREM section plane and two re-section planes cutting perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the original section plane through the HREM volume data. (b) 3D surface model and two oblique re-section planes. Note that the virtual planes were orientated to cut perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the respective blood vessel segment through the original volume data. (c) and (d) Virtual section planes shown in (b). aa = ascending aorta, bt = brachiocephalic trunk, lc = left common carotid artery, ls = left subclavian artery, da = descending aorta, pt = pulmonary trunk, pa = pulmonary artery, db = ductus arteriosus (Botalli), av = aortic valve, pv = pulmonary valve, at = atrium, cv = cardiac ventricle, li = liver, r = rib, cl = clavicle, ve = forming vertebrae sc = spinal chord, sg = signal ganglion, t = trachea, e = oesophagus. Scale bar = 200 μm.
Mentions: Similarly, HREM analysis has facilitated quantitative assessment of stenosis or dilation of the great intrathoracic arteries. Coarctation of the aorta or stenosis of the pharyngeal arch arteries and their derivatives often are associated with complex, intra-cardiac and extra-cardiac defects [e.g.] [29,30–33] which can result in prenatal or perinatal lethality. Accurate detection of stenosis in embryonic and foetal blood vessels requires histological sections cut precisely perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the artery being measured. Technically challenging with adult mice, this conventional approach is impossible with mouse embryos. Its digital equivalent is however straightforward with image volume data — and only HREM data currently provides spatial resolution adequate to yield meaningful measurements [34,35] (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Development of the heart in vertebrate embryos is a complex process in which the organ is continually remodelled as chambers are formed, valves sculpted and connections established to the developing vascular system.A recurrent challenge in this work is how to integrate studies as diverse as those of cardiac gene function and regulation with an appreciation of the localised interactions between cardiac tissues not to mention the manner in which both may be affected by cardiac function itself.Meeting this challenge requires an accurate way to analyse the changes in 3D morphology of the developing heart, which can be swift or protracted and both dramatic or subtle in consequence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK. tmohun@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus