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Coping with brief periods of food restriction: mindfulness matters.

Paolini B, Burdette JH, Laurienti PJ, Morgan AR, Williamson DA, Rejeski WJ - Front Aging Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: We found that adults high in trait mindfulness were able to return to their default mode network (DMN), as indicated by greater global efficiency in the precuneus, during the post-exposure rest period.This effect was stronger for the BOOST® than NO BOOST® treatment condition.Older adults low in trait mindfulness did not exhibit this pattern in the DMN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
The obesity epidemic had spawned considerable interest in understanding peoples' responses to palatable food cues that are plentiful in obesogenic environments. In this paper we examine how trait mindfulness of older, obese adults may moderate brain networks that arise from exposure to such cues. Nineteen older, obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they ate a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 h. After this brief period of food restriction, they had an fMRI scan in which they were exposed to food cues and then underwent a 5 min recovery period to evaluate brain networks at rest. On one day they consumed a BOOST® liquid meal prior to scanning, whereas on the other day they only consumed water (NO BOOST® condition). We found that adults high in trait mindfulness were able to return to their default mode network (DMN), as indicated by greater global efficiency in the precuneus, during the post-exposure rest period. This effect was stronger for the BOOST® than NO BOOST® treatment condition. Older adults low in trait mindfulness did not exhibit this pattern in the DMN. In fact, the brain networks of those low on the MAAS suggests that they continued to be pre-occupied with the elaboration of food cues even after cue exposure had ended. Further work is needed to examine whether mindfulness-based therapies alter brain networks to food cues and whether these changes are related to eating behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Connectivity Maps from Amygdala by MAAS Category. This figure shows brain regions that are two steps removed from the amygdala. The insula/auditory cortex on the right is highlighted by the yellow circle.
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Figure 6: Connectivity Maps from Amygdala by MAAS Category. This figure shows brain regions that are two steps removed from the amygdala. The insula/auditory cortex on the right is highlighted by the yellow circle.

Mentions: The connectivity maps shown in Figure 5 reflect those second order connections for the auditory and insular cortices. Examination across the four panels reveals that the auditory and insular cortices of the low mindful group had higher connectivity with the sensorimotor cortex (yellow arrow), visual cortex (green arrow), and orbital frontal cortex (red arrows) than the high mindful group. The connectivity distributions follow exponentially truncated power laws. Therefore, we performed statistics on fit paramerters for the whole distributions (see Materials and Methods). Due to multiple subjects lacking connections to the orbital frontal cortex, the statistics focused on sensorimotor and visual cortices. These analyses revealed significantly greater connectivity in the visual cortex of the low mindfulness group compared to the high mindfulness group. Other comparisons did not achieve significance in the visual cortex, but there was a trend for a reduction in connectivity (p = 0.06) comparing the BOOST® and NO BOOST® conditions in the high mindfulness group. Connections to the sensorimotor cortex were marginally significant (p = 0.08) with greater connectivity again in the low compared to the high mindfulness groups. No other comparisons in the sensorimotor cortex were significant. These results suggest that in the low mindful group this sub-network was more strongly interconnected and continued to process and elaborate upon the food stimuli during the resting phase of the experiment. The connectivity maps shown in Figure 6 reflect those areas that were within one step of the amygdala. Once again, the auditory and insular cortices are major connectivity regions. While the group and condition differences shown here do not achieve significance when the distributions were statistically compared, it is important to note that the amygdala is also highly connected to the insula/auditory cortex.


Coping with brief periods of food restriction: mindfulness matters.

Paolini B, Burdette JH, Laurienti PJ, Morgan AR, Williamson DA, Rejeski WJ - Front Aging Neurosci (2012)

Connectivity Maps from Amygdala by MAAS Category. This figure shows brain regions that are two steps removed from the amygdala. The insula/auditory cortex on the right is highlighted by the yellow circle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368241&req=5

Figure 6: Connectivity Maps from Amygdala by MAAS Category. This figure shows brain regions that are two steps removed from the amygdala. The insula/auditory cortex on the right is highlighted by the yellow circle.
Mentions: The connectivity maps shown in Figure 5 reflect those second order connections for the auditory and insular cortices. Examination across the four panels reveals that the auditory and insular cortices of the low mindful group had higher connectivity with the sensorimotor cortex (yellow arrow), visual cortex (green arrow), and orbital frontal cortex (red arrows) than the high mindful group. The connectivity distributions follow exponentially truncated power laws. Therefore, we performed statistics on fit paramerters for the whole distributions (see Materials and Methods). Due to multiple subjects lacking connections to the orbital frontal cortex, the statistics focused on sensorimotor and visual cortices. These analyses revealed significantly greater connectivity in the visual cortex of the low mindfulness group compared to the high mindfulness group. Other comparisons did not achieve significance in the visual cortex, but there was a trend for a reduction in connectivity (p = 0.06) comparing the BOOST® and NO BOOST® conditions in the high mindfulness group. Connections to the sensorimotor cortex were marginally significant (p = 0.08) with greater connectivity again in the low compared to the high mindfulness groups. No other comparisons in the sensorimotor cortex were significant. These results suggest that in the low mindful group this sub-network was more strongly interconnected and continued to process and elaborate upon the food stimuli during the resting phase of the experiment. The connectivity maps shown in Figure 6 reflect those areas that were within one step of the amygdala. Once again, the auditory and insular cortices are major connectivity regions. While the group and condition differences shown here do not achieve significance when the distributions were statistically compared, it is important to note that the amygdala is also highly connected to the insula/auditory cortex.

Bottom Line: We found that adults high in trait mindfulness were able to return to their default mode network (DMN), as indicated by greater global efficiency in the precuneus, during the post-exposure rest period.This effect was stronger for the BOOST® than NO BOOST® treatment condition.Older adults low in trait mindfulness did not exhibit this pattern in the DMN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
The obesity epidemic had spawned considerable interest in understanding peoples' responses to palatable food cues that are plentiful in obesogenic environments. In this paper we examine how trait mindfulness of older, obese adults may moderate brain networks that arise from exposure to such cues. Nineteen older, obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they ate a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 h. After this brief period of food restriction, they had an fMRI scan in which they were exposed to food cues and then underwent a 5 min recovery period to evaluate brain networks at rest. On one day they consumed a BOOST® liquid meal prior to scanning, whereas on the other day they only consumed water (NO BOOST® condition). We found that adults high in trait mindfulness were able to return to their default mode network (DMN), as indicated by greater global efficiency in the precuneus, during the post-exposure rest period. This effect was stronger for the BOOST® than NO BOOST® treatment condition. Older adults low in trait mindfulness did not exhibit this pattern in the DMN. In fact, the brain networks of those low on the MAAS suggests that they continued to be pre-occupied with the elaboration of food cues even after cue exposure had ended. Further work is needed to examine whether mindfulness-based therapies alter brain networks to food cues and whether these changes are related to eating behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus