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Coping with brief periods of food restriction: mindfulness matters.

Paolini B, Burdette JH, Laurienti PJ, Morgan AR, Williamson DA, Rejeski WJ - Front Aging Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: We found that adults high in trait mindfulness were able to return to their default mode network (DMN), as indicated by greater global efficiency in the precuneus, during the post-exposure rest period.This effect was stronger for the BOOST® than NO BOOST® treatment condition.Older adults low in trait mindfulness did not exhibit this pattern in the DMN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
The obesity epidemic had spawned considerable interest in understanding peoples' responses to palatable food cues that are plentiful in obesogenic environments. In this paper we examine how trait mindfulness of older, obese adults may moderate brain networks that arise from exposure to such cues. Nineteen older, obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they ate a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 h. After this brief period of food restriction, they had an fMRI scan in which they were exposed to food cues and then underwent a 5 min recovery period to evaluate brain networks at rest. On one day they consumed a BOOST® liquid meal prior to scanning, whereas on the other day they only consumed water (NO BOOST® condition). We found that adults high in trait mindfulness were able to return to their default mode network (DMN), as indicated by greater global efficiency in the precuneus, during the post-exposure rest period. This effect was stronger for the BOOST® than NO BOOST® treatment condition. Older adults low in trait mindfulness did not exhibit this pattern in the DMN. In fact, the brain networks of those low on the MAAS suggests that they continued to be pre-occupied with the elaboration of food cues even after cue exposure had ended. Further work is needed to examine whether mindfulness-based therapies alter brain networks to food cues and whether these changes are related to eating behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

K-core decomposition map.
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Figure 1: K-core decomposition map.

Mentions: The second analysis focused on identifying the core of the brain networks based on the number of connections (or degree, often abbreviated as K), using a procedure called k-core decomposition (Figure 1) (Alvarez-Hamelin et al., 2006). This procedure iteratively removes nodes based on the degree of each node. The first step removes all nodes with a single connection. This can often result in nodes that previously had a degree >1 now being equal to 1. The procedure is continued until no nodes have a single connection. The next step is to remove nodes with a degree of 2 and so on until the network completely collapses. In this process each node is then assigned a k-shell that refers to the point when the node was removed from the network. The nodes that remain toward the end of the procedure are the highly interconnected, high degree nodes that make up the core of the network (K = 3 in Figure 1 below). The core data presented here identified the top 10% of nodes to ensure that the core being compared across subjects contained the same number of nodes. As with global efficiency, the consistency of the location of the core was determined by overlapping the core maps across subjects in each study population or condition. Statistical analyses on the network core data used the average value of the k-shell in specific brain regions as described in the regions-of-interest analyses below.


Coping with brief periods of food restriction: mindfulness matters.

Paolini B, Burdette JH, Laurienti PJ, Morgan AR, Williamson DA, Rejeski WJ - Front Aging Neurosci (2012)

K-core decomposition map.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368241&req=5

Figure 1: K-core decomposition map.
Mentions: The second analysis focused on identifying the core of the brain networks based on the number of connections (or degree, often abbreviated as K), using a procedure called k-core decomposition (Figure 1) (Alvarez-Hamelin et al., 2006). This procedure iteratively removes nodes based on the degree of each node. The first step removes all nodes with a single connection. This can often result in nodes that previously had a degree >1 now being equal to 1. The procedure is continued until no nodes have a single connection. The next step is to remove nodes with a degree of 2 and so on until the network completely collapses. In this process each node is then assigned a k-shell that refers to the point when the node was removed from the network. The nodes that remain toward the end of the procedure are the highly interconnected, high degree nodes that make up the core of the network (K = 3 in Figure 1 below). The core data presented here identified the top 10% of nodes to ensure that the core being compared across subjects contained the same number of nodes. As with global efficiency, the consistency of the location of the core was determined by overlapping the core maps across subjects in each study population or condition. Statistical analyses on the network core data used the average value of the k-shell in specific brain regions as described in the regions-of-interest analyses below.

Bottom Line: We found that adults high in trait mindfulness were able to return to their default mode network (DMN), as indicated by greater global efficiency in the precuneus, during the post-exposure rest period.This effect was stronger for the BOOST® than NO BOOST® treatment condition.Older adults low in trait mindfulness did not exhibit this pattern in the DMN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
The obesity epidemic had spawned considerable interest in understanding peoples' responses to palatable food cues that are plentiful in obesogenic environments. In this paper we examine how trait mindfulness of older, obese adults may moderate brain networks that arise from exposure to such cues. Nineteen older, obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they ate a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 h. After this brief period of food restriction, they had an fMRI scan in which they were exposed to food cues and then underwent a 5 min recovery period to evaluate brain networks at rest. On one day they consumed a BOOST® liquid meal prior to scanning, whereas on the other day they only consumed water (NO BOOST® condition). We found that adults high in trait mindfulness were able to return to their default mode network (DMN), as indicated by greater global efficiency in the precuneus, during the post-exposure rest period. This effect was stronger for the BOOST® than NO BOOST® treatment condition. Older adults low in trait mindfulness did not exhibit this pattern in the DMN. In fact, the brain networks of those low on the MAAS suggests that they continued to be pre-occupied with the elaboration of food cues even after cue exposure had ended. Further work is needed to examine whether mindfulness-based therapies alter brain networks to food cues and whether these changes are related to eating behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus