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A review of ecological factors associated with the epidemiology of wildlife trypanosomiasis in the luangwa and zambezi valley ecosystems of zambia.

Munang'andu HM, Siamudaala V, Munyeme M, Nalubamba KS - Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis (2012)

Bottom Line: The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans.Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies.On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Sciences, Ullevalsveien 72, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Shows the districts surrounding the National Parks and Game Management areas (GMAs) and deforestation in the GMAs. Inset shows the map of Zambia and study area.
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fig3: Shows the districts surrounding the National Parks and Game Management areas (GMAs) and deforestation in the GMAs. Inset shows the map of Zambia and study area.

Mentions: Deforestation due to charcoal extraction and clearing of land for cultivation and livestock production are contributing to loss of habitat for wildlife and tsetse in the GMAs. More than 31,000 tons of charcoal is extracted annually in the Nyimba and Petauke GMAs (Figure 3). A similar trend has been reported in the Chinsali GMAs, while more than 21% of the forest cover in Lundazi has been cleared for crop cultivation [62]. As pointed out by Lawton [16], an ecosystem of human settlement/cultivation/pastoralism is opposite of the wildlife/miombo/tsetse ecosystem that naturally sustains the persistence of trypanosomiasis. Once miombo is cleared, tsetse and wildlife retreat into NPs due to loss of habitat in GMAs giving way to crop cultivation or pastoralism so long miombo woodlands do not regenerate for reinvasion of tsetse. Similarly, extensive burning of ground cover annually done by local residents to facilitate wild honey collection, hunting and crop cultivation contributes to loss of habitat although early burning is known to favor regeneration of woodlands which creates a favorable habitat for tsetse while late burning in the dry season creates open areas unfavorable for tsetse. To counteract these adverse anthropogenic effects, conservation strategies aimed at empowering local residents with alternative income generating activities are been explored [60]. More than 25,000 beehives have been established in the area while illegal hunters are encouraged to surrender their firearms and snares in exchange for alternative income sources [60]. Overall, positive attributes gained from these activities include increase in wildlife populations, even distribution of wildlife due to reduced hunting pressure and reduced in deforestation.


A review of ecological factors associated with the epidemiology of wildlife trypanosomiasis in the luangwa and zambezi valley ecosystems of zambia.

Munang'andu HM, Siamudaala V, Munyeme M, Nalubamba KS - Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis (2012)

Shows the districts surrounding the National Parks and Game Management areas (GMAs) and deforestation in the GMAs. Inset shows the map of Zambia and study area.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368204&req=5

fig3: Shows the districts surrounding the National Parks and Game Management areas (GMAs) and deforestation in the GMAs. Inset shows the map of Zambia and study area.
Mentions: Deforestation due to charcoal extraction and clearing of land for cultivation and livestock production are contributing to loss of habitat for wildlife and tsetse in the GMAs. More than 31,000 tons of charcoal is extracted annually in the Nyimba and Petauke GMAs (Figure 3). A similar trend has been reported in the Chinsali GMAs, while more than 21% of the forest cover in Lundazi has been cleared for crop cultivation [62]. As pointed out by Lawton [16], an ecosystem of human settlement/cultivation/pastoralism is opposite of the wildlife/miombo/tsetse ecosystem that naturally sustains the persistence of trypanosomiasis. Once miombo is cleared, tsetse and wildlife retreat into NPs due to loss of habitat in GMAs giving way to crop cultivation or pastoralism so long miombo woodlands do not regenerate for reinvasion of tsetse. Similarly, extensive burning of ground cover annually done by local residents to facilitate wild honey collection, hunting and crop cultivation contributes to loss of habitat although early burning is known to favor regeneration of woodlands which creates a favorable habitat for tsetse while late burning in the dry season creates open areas unfavorable for tsetse. To counteract these adverse anthropogenic effects, conservation strategies aimed at empowering local residents with alternative income generating activities are been explored [60]. More than 25,000 beehives have been established in the area while illegal hunters are encouraged to surrender their firearms and snares in exchange for alternative income sources [60]. Overall, positive attributes gained from these activities include increase in wildlife populations, even distribution of wildlife due to reduced hunting pressure and reduced in deforestation.

Bottom Line: The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans.Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies.On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Sciences, Ullevalsveien 72, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus