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A review of ecological factors associated with the epidemiology of wildlife trypanosomiasis in the luangwa and zambezi valley ecosystems of zambia.

Munang'andu HM, Siamudaala V, Munyeme M, Nalubamba KS - Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis (2012)

Bottom Line: The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans.Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies.On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Sciences, Ullevalsveien 72, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Shows the distribution of the tsetse infested areas overlapping the distribution of National Parks and Game Management Areas. Black dots show areas of clinical human trypanosomiasis cases, while insert shows the map of Zambia with A showing the study area.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig2: Shows the distribution of the tsetse infested areas overlapping the distribution of National Parks and Game Management Areas. Black dots show areas of clinical human trypanosomiasis cases, while insert shows the map of Zambia with A showing the study area.

Mentions: Luangwa valley ecosystem is made of the Luangwa valley which stretches for a distance of 700 km with an average width of 200 km. The valley covers a total area of 63,000 km2 being part of the southern end of the Great Rift Valley that cuts across eastern Africa. It is covered by a biomass that sustains a vast range of wildlife and Glossina species. As shown in Figure 1, it is bordered by the Muchinga escapement, Mafinga Mountains, and Nyika plateau. The banks of the riverine are made of thick Miombo forests while the adjacent slopes are composed of Mopane woodlands. The valley floor is comprised of four NPs and six GMAs, namely, North Luangwa (4,636 km2), South Luangwa (9,050 km2), Luambe (247 km2), and Lukusuzi (2,729 km2) (Figure 2). Game management areas (GMAs) are buffer zones used for wildlife utilization mainly hunting unlike the NPs in which hunting is prohibited [15]. In addition, coexistence of wildlife and humans is permitted in GMAs and not NPs. The area has mean annual rainfall of 800 mm and an altitude of 500 m to 600 m. Daily ambient temperatures range from 32°C to 36°C, with mean minimum daily temperatures of 16°C to 23°C, respectively. The Luangwa valley is covered by Miombo woodlands. As pointed out by Lawton [16, 17], that Miombo and associated woodlands are the habitat of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, the presence of which has a profound effect on the ecology and utilization of woodlands [18]. When there is wildlife in miombo, tsetse flies survive in large numbers. Hence, the combination of wildlife/miombo/tsetse fly is a natural ecosystem that sustains the persistence of trypanosomiasis for a long time. As shown in Figure 2, the Luangwa valley lies in an ecosystem that overlays NPs and GMAs with tsetse distribution being part of the famous “common fly belt” having the high tsetse infestation density that covers an estimated area of 322,000 km2 involving Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Zambia [13]. Robinson et al. [13] noted that in this common fly belt the highest tsetse densities are centered on the drainage systems of the Luangwa and Zambezi rivers. The most common species of tsetse in the area are Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood and Glossina pallidipes Austen. Given the relative abundance of a diverse wildlife population and a high population density of Glossina species, this area renders the best ecological niche for trypanosomiasis transmission between tsetse and wild game.


A review of ecological factors associated with the epidemiology of wildlife trypanosomiasis in the luangwa and zambezi valley ecosystems of zambia.

Munang'andu HM, Siamudaala V, Munyeme M, Nalubamba KS - Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis (2012)

Shows the distribution of the tsetse infested areas overlapping the distribution of National Parks and Game Management Areas. Black dots show areas of clinical human trypanosomiasis cases, while insert shows the map of Zambia with A showing the study area.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368204&req=5

fig2: Shows the distribution of the tsetse infested areas overlapping the distribution of National Parks and Game Management Areas. Black dots show areas of clinical human trypanosomiasis cases, while insert shows the map of Zambia with A showing the study area.
Mentions: Luangwa valley ecosystem is made of the Luangwa valley which stretches for a distance of 700 km with an average width of 200 km. The valley covers a total area of 63,000 km2 being part of the southern end of the Great Rift Valley that cuts across eastern Africa. It is covered by a biomass that sustains a vast range of wildlife and Glossina species. As shown in Figure 1, it is bordered by the Muchinga escapement, Mafinga Mountains, and Nyika plateau. The banks of the riverine are made of thick Miombo forests while the adjacent slopes are composed of Mopane woodlands. The valley floor is comprised of four NPs and six GMAs, namely, North Luangwa (4,636 km2), South Luangwa (9,050 km2), Luambe (247 km2), and Lukusuzi (2,729 km2) (Figure 2). Game management areas (GMAs) are buffer zones used for wildlife utilization mainly hunting unlike the NPs in which hunting is prohibited [15]. In addition, coexistence of wildlife and humans is permitted in GMAs and not NPs. The area has mean annual rainfall of 800 mm and an altitude of 500 m to 600 m. Daily ambient temperatures range from 32°C to 36°C, with mean minimum daily temperatures of 16°C to 23°C, respectively. The Luangwa valley is covered by Miombo woodlands. As pointed out by Lawton [16, 17], that Miombo and associated woodlands are the habitat of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, the presence of which has a profound effect on the ecology and utilization of woodlands [18]. When there is wildlife in miombo, tsetse flies survive in large numbers. Hence, the combination of wildlife/miombo/tsetse fly is a natural ecosystem that sustains the persistence of trypanosomiasis for a long time. As shown in Figure 2, the Luangwa valley lies in an ecosystem that overlays NPs and GMAs with tsetse distribution being part of the famous “common fly belt” having the high tsetse infestation density that covers an estimated area of 322,000 km2 involving Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Zambia [13]. Robinson et al. [13] noted that in this common fly belt the highest tsetse densities are centered on the drainage systems of the Luangwa and Zambezi rivers. The most common species of tsetse in the area are Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood and Glossina pallidipes Austen. Given the relative abundance of a diverse wildlife population and a high population density of Glossina species, this area renders the best ecological niche for trypanosomiasis transmission between tsetse and wild game.

Bottom Line: The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans.Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies.On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Sciences, Ullevalsveien 72, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the highest tsetse population density in Southern Africa. Ecological factors such as climate, vegetation and rainfall found in this niche allow for a favorable interplay between wild reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies. These ecological factors that influence the survival of a wide range of wildlife species provide adequate habitat for tsetse flies thereby supporting the coexistence of disease reservoir hosts and vector tsetse flies leading to prolonged persistence of trypanosomiasis in the area. On the other hand, increase in anthropogenic activities poses a significant threat of reducing the tsetse and wildlife habitat in the area. Herein, we demonstrate that while conservation of wildlife and biodiversity is an important preservation strategy of natural resources, it could serve as a long-term reservoir of wildlife trypanosomiasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus