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Surface modification of biomaterials: a quest for blood compatibility.

de Mel A, Cousins BG, Seifalian AM - Int J Biomater (2012)

Bottom Line: Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility.Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications.These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UCL Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, University College London, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK.

ABSTRACT
Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation: highlighted are the main factors which are involved in blood coagulation. Numbered events distinguish as (1) biochemical, (2) platelets, and (3) whole blood (red and white blood cells). Image is adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coagulation_full.svg.
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fig2: Intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation: highlighted are the main factors which are involved in blood coagulation. Numbered events distinguish as (1) biochemical, (2) platelets, and (3) whole blood (red and white blood cells). Image is adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coagulation_full.svg.

Mentions: The initial events leading to thrombosis surrounding the tissue-implant interface are mediated by surface interactions with adsorbed proteins (intrinsic pathway) or through the release of tissue factor (TF) from damaged cells at the site of injury (extrinsic pathway) [6] (Figure 2). The intrinsic pathway is independent of injury. Adsorbed surface proteins form a complex composed of collagen, high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein, and factor XII. Inactive precursors (clotting factors) change conformation and are converted into active enzymes via a biochemical cascade resulting in platelet activation (with the aid of additional cofactors). Cleavage of prothrombin via the prothrombinase complex bound to cellular membranes generates thrombin, and by converting fibrinogen to fibrin, forms a stable insoluble gel (red thrombus or clot).


Surface modification of biomaterials: a quest for blood compatibility.

de Mel A, Cousins BG, Seifalian AM - Int J Biomater (2012)

Intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation: highlighted are the main factors which are involved in blood coagulation. Numbered events distinguish as (1) biochemical, (2) platelets, and (3) whole blood (red and white blood cells). Image is adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coagulation_full.svg.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368185&req=5

fig2: Intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation: highlighted are the main factors which are involved in blood coagulation. Numbered events distinguish as (1) biochemical, (2) platelets, and (3) whole blood (red and white blood cells). Image is adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coagulation_full.svg.
Mentions: The initial events leading to thrombosis surrounding the tissue-implant interface are mediated by surface interactions with adsorbed proteins (intrinsic pathway) or through the release of tissue factor (TF) from damaged cells at the site of injury (extrinsic pathway) [6] (Figure 2). The intrinsic pathway is independent of injury. Adsorbed surface proteins form a complex composed of collagen, high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein, and factor XII. Inactive precursors (clotting factors) change conformation and are converted into active enzymes via a biochemical cascade resulting in platelet activation (with the aid of additional cofactors). Cleavage of prothrombin via the prothrombinase complex bound to cellular membranes generates thrombin, and by converting fibrinogen to fibrin, forms a stable insoluble gel (red thrombus or clot).

Bottom Line: Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility.Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications.These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UCL Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, University College London, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK.

ABSTRACT
Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus