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Surface modification of biomaterials: a quest for blood compatibility.

de Mel A, Cousins BG, Seifalian AM - Int J Biomater (2012)

Bottom Line: Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility.Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications.These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UCL Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, University College London, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK.

ABSTRACT
Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Haemocompatibility-determining factors in a cardiovascular device; marked in red are areas of interest in this paper.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Haemocompatibility-determining factors in a cardiovascular device; marked in red are areas of interest in this paper.

Mentions: Cardiovascular disease accounts for a significant percentage of mortality and morbidity in the ageing population and has an estimated increase in the coming years [1]. There is an urgent clinical need for improved cardiovascular devices, which mainly include vascular bypass grafts, vascular stents, and heart valves, which will promote desirable blood-biomaterial interactions with a high patency. Vascular occlusive disease holds the greatest risk factor most emphasised in the coronary arteries where cardiac ischemia may lead to complete heart failure. Main reperfusion-based surgical intervention options for these diseases involve angioplasty, stenting, endarterectomy, and bypass graft surgery depending on the degree of occlusion. Cases with greater than 70% occluded arteries are required to be treated with bypass grafts. For small diameter bypass grafts, autologous bypass conduits are preferred for primary revascularisation [2]. However, 3–30% patients are presented with no autologous vessels due to previous disease conditions and thus there is a need for vascular grafts which could perform closely to autologous vessels [3]. Graft thrombogenicity due to material surface incompatibility and altered flow dynamics at the site of anastomosis or distal outflow are recognised as primary reasons for blood contacting device failure [4]. There is a great interest in research strategies that focus upon surface techniques by modifying the physicochemical properties at the implant surface [5] and by combining a biomimetic approach through functionalisation which presents an exciting challenge to improve patency rates clinically (Figure 1). This paper aims to review some of the significant approaches in modifying a material surface to create optimal interactions with blood.


Surface modification of biomaterials: a quest for blood compatibility.

de Mel A, Cousins BG, Seifalian AM - Int J Biomater (2012)

Haemocompatibility-determining factors in a cardiovascular device; marked in red are areas of interest in this paper.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368185&req=5

fig1: Haemocompatibility-determining factors in a cardiovascular device; marked in red are areas of interest in this paper.
Mentions: Cardiovascular disease accounts for a significant percentage of mortality and morbidity in the ageing population and has an estimated increase in the coming years [1]. There is an urgent clinical need for improved cardiovascular devices, which mainly include vascular bypass grafts, vascular stents, and heart valves, which will promote desirable blood-biomaterial interactions with a high patency. Vascular occlusive disease holds the greatest risk factor most emphasised in the coronary arteries where cardiac ischemia may lead to complete heart failure. Main reperfusion-based surgical intervention options for these diseases involve angioplasty, stenting, endarterectomy, and bypass graft surgery depending on the degree of occlusion. Cases with greater than 70% occluded arteries are required to be treated with bypass grafts. For small diameter bypass grafts, autologous bypass conduits are preferred for primary revascularisation [2]. However, 3–30% patients are presented with no autologous vessels due to previous disease conditions and thus there is a need for vascular grafts which could perform closely to autologous vessels [3]. Graft thrombogenicity due to material surface incompatibility and altered flow dynamics at the site of anastomosis or distal outflow are recognised as primary reasons for blood contacting device failure [4]. There is a great interest in research strategies that focus upon surface techniques by modifying the physicochemical properties at the implant surface [5] and by combining a biomimetic approach through functionalisation which presents an exciting challenge to improve patency rates clinically (Figure 1). This paper aims to review some of the significant approaches in modifying a material surface to create optimal interactions with blood.

Bottom Line: Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility.Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications.These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UCL Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, University College London, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK.

ABSTRACT
Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus