Limits...
Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Growth Suppression and Adverse Effects on Human Health Due to Air Pollution in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), Southern Poland.

Malik I, Danek M, Marchwińska-Wyrwał E, Danek T, Wistuba M, Krąpiec M - Water Air Soil Pollut (2012)

Bottom Line: Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981.At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature.Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Air pollution emissions were not continually monitored in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), southern Poland, and data is only available for the last 20 years. Long-lasting and severe tree ring reductions in pines growing 5-20 km north of the USID area recorded particularly high levels of air pollution emissions in the period 1950-1990. Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981. At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature. Increases in infant mortality and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males were also recorded in the USID during periods of high air pollution. Infant mortality rates increased several years after the tree ring reductions. Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Standardized reference, local and site chronologies developed from tree ring series from sampled pines with negative pointer years marked. Values below the overall average tree ring index for all pines (0.89) are shaded gray
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368106&req=5

Fig3: Standardized reference, local and site chronologies developed from tree ring series from sampled pines with negative pointer years marked. Values below the overall average tree ring index for all pines (0.89) are shaded gray

Mentions: We developed a reference chronology for pines growing around 60 km from the Tarnowskie Góry Chemical Plant and the Miasteczko Śląskie Zinc Foundry (Fig. 3). A chronology was also developed for all pines sampled at individual sites located near both plants (local chronology) (Fig. 3). Negative pointer years (1921, 1928, 1931, 1937, 1940, 1943, 1945, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1969, 1971–1972, 1979, 1987, 1993, 1996, 2000, 2006) occur both in the local (developed near the plants) and reference chronology (Fig. 3). Because of this, the abovementioned narrow rings identified as pointer years are not considered to have been formed mainly due to the harmful atmosphere emissions from the Upper Silesian Industrial District or the two studied plants; e.g., tree ring reductions in 1940–1941 are usually clearly visible in rings of pines growing in Central Europe—they were formed due to the especially harsh winter of 1940 (Malik et al. 2009). In 1921, an extraordinary dry year could have been crucial to studied pines in forming extremely narrow annual rings (Zielski 1996). Also, other harsh winters, which occurred in Poland in 1956, 1960, 1962, 1976, 1979, and 1996, could have suppressed pine growth. Tree rings are particularly narrow when a harsh winter is followed by vegetation period with limited amounts of precipitation (Wilczyński and Skrzyszewski 2002).Fig. 3


Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Growth Suppression and Adverse Effects on Human Health Due to Air Pollution in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), Southern Poland.

Malik I, Danek M, Marchwińska-Wyrwał E, Danek T, Wistuba M, Krąpiec M - Water Air Soil Pollut (2012)

Standardized reference, local and site chronologies developed from tree ring series from sampled pines with negative pointer years marked. Values below the overall average tree ring index for all pines (0.89) are shaded gray
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368106&req=5

Fig3: Standardized reference, local and site chronologies developed from tree ring series from sampled pines with negative pointer years marked. Values below the overall average tree ring index for all pines (0.89) are shaded gray
Mentions: We developed a reference chronology for pines growing around 60 km from the Tarnowskie Góry Chemical Plant and the Miasteczko Śląskie Zinc Foundry (Fig. 3). A chronology was also developed for all pines sampled at individual sites located near both plants (local chronology) (Fig. 3). Negative pointer years (1921, 1928, 1931, 1937, 1940, 1943, 1945, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1969, 1971–1972, 1979, 1987, 1993, 1996, 2000, 2006) occur both in the local (developed near the plants) and reference chronology (Fig. 3). Because of this, the abovementioned narrow rings identified as pointer years are not considered to have been formed mainly due to the harmful atmosphere emissions from the Upper Silesian Industrial District or the two studied plants; e.g., tree ring reductions in 1940–1941 are usually clearly visible in rings of pines growing in Central Europe—they were formed due to the especially harsh winter of 1940 (Malik et al. 2009). In 1921, an extraordinary dry year could have been crucial to studied pines in forming extremely narrow annual rings (Zielski 1996). Also, other harsh winters, which occurred in Poland in 1956, 1960, 1962, 1976, 1979, and 1996, could have suppressed pine growth. Tree rings are particularly narrow when a harsh winter is followed by vegetation period with limited amounts of precipitation (Wilczyński and Skrzyszewski 2002).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981.At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature.Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Air pollution emissions were not continually monitored in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), southern Poland, and data is only available for the last 20 years. Long-lasting and severe tree ring reductions in pines growing 5-20 km north of the USID area recorded particularly high levels of air pollution emissions in the period 1950-1990. Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981. At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature. Increases in infant mortality and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males were also recorded in the USID during periods of high air pollution. Infant mortality rates increased several years after the tree ring reductions. Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus