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Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Growth Suppression and Adverse Effects on Human Health Due to Air Pollution in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), Southern Poland.

Malik I, Danek M, Marchwińska-Wyrwał E, Danek T, Wistuba M, Krąpiec M - Water Air Soil Pollut (2012)

Bottom Line: Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981.At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature.Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Air pollution emissions were not continually monitored in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), southern Poland, and data is only available for the last 20 years. Long-lasting and severe tree ring reductions in pines growing 5-20 km north of the USID area recorded particularly high levels of air pollution emissions in the period 1950-1990. Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981. At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature. Increases in infant mortality and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males were also recorded in the USID during periods of high air pollution. Infant mortality rates increased several years after the tree ring reductions. Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relationship between lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males in Poland and the Upper Silesian Industrial District. a Variability of lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates for males in the USID and Poland. b Lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity index for males (USID minus Poland)
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Fig12: Relationship between lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males in Poland and the Upper Silesian Industrial District. a Variability of lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates for males in the USID and Poland. b Lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity index for males (USID minus Poland)

Mentions: After 1987, morbidity rates in the USID were lower (Fig. 12a, b). The number of cancer cases decreased since 1978, when it reached its highest level. It is difficult to say how it increased before that year because no data is available prior to 1970. The decrease in cancer morbidity rates is slower than the decrease in the infant mortality rate and the number of tree ring reductions (Fig. 10b). This seems normal because cancer develops over a longer period and should be more lagged in relation to air pollution than infant mortality and the increase in tree ring reductions. The calculation of the correlation of lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer rates related to tree ring reductions showed the highest correlation values (around 0.6) when human health data is lagged 0–6 years (Fig. 11b). In the case of cancer, this lag could even extend to 20–30 years (Mossman and Gee 1989; Doll et al. 2004) due to the latency period. On the other hand, the strongest correlation between the number of tree ring reductions and morbidity of cancer of the lung, bronchus, and trachea was observed when there was a delay of up to 6 years to cancer occurrence. The exact biological mechanism of the effect of air pollution on human health, including the potential delay in the occurrence of health outcomes, is unknown. Maybe an extremely high air pollution level produced an accelerated development of cancer. Also, previous air pollution emissions (from the period before the 1960s–1980s) can be responsible for relatively high correlations in the case where the cancer data has a lag of 0–6 years following the number of tree rings data. The value of correlation coefficient calculated for cancer morbidity rates among males is higher than the correlation for infant mortality (Fig. 11a, b).Fig. 12


Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Growth Suppression and Adverse Effects on Human Health Due to Air Pollution in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), Southern Poland.

Malik I, Danek M, Marchwińska-Wyrwał E, Danek T, Wistuba M, Krąpiec M - Water Air Soil Pollut (2012)

Relationship between lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males in Poland and the Upper Silesian Industrial District. a Variability of lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates for males in the USID and Poland. b Lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity index for males (USID minus Poland)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368106&req=5

Fig12: Relationship between lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males in Poland and the Upper Silesian Industrial District. a Variability of lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates for males in the USID and Poland. b Lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity index for males (USID minus Poland)
Mentions: After 1987, morbidity rates in the USID were lower (Fig. 12a, b). The number of cancer cases decreased since 1978, when it reached its highest level. It is difficult to say how it increased before that year because no data is available prior to 1970. The decrease in cancer morbidity rates is slower than the decrease in the infant mortality rate and the number of tree ring reductions (Fig. 10b). This seems normal because cancer develops over a longer period and should be more lagged in relation to air pollution than infant mortality and the increase in tree ring reductions. The calculation of the correlation of lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer rates related to tree ring reductions showed the highest correlation values (around 0.6) when human health data is lagged 0–6 years (Fig. 11b). In the case of cancer, this lag could even extend to 20–30 years (Mossman and Gee 1989; Doll et al. 2004) due to the latency period. On the other hand, the strongest correlation between the number of tree ring reductions and morbidity of cancer of the lung, bronchus, and trachea was observed when there was a delay of up to 6 years to cancer occurrence. The exact biological mechanism of the effect of air pollution on human health, including the potential delay in the occurrence of health outcomes, is unknown. Maybe an extremely high air pollution level produced an accelerated development of cancer. Also, previous air pollution emissions (from the period before the 1960s–1980s) can be responsible for relatively high correlations in the case where the cancer data has a lag of 0–6 years following the number of tree rings data. The value of correlation coefficient calculated for cancer morbidity rates among males is higher than the correlation for infant mortality (Fig. 11a, b).Fig. 12

Bottom Line: Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981.At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature.Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Air pollution emissions were not continually monitored in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), southern Poland, and data is only available for the last 20 years. Long-lasting and severe tree ring reductions in pines growing 5-20 km north of the USID area recorded particularly high levels of air pollution emissions in the period 1950-1990. Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981. At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature. Increases in infant mortality and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males were also recorded in the USID during periods of high air pollution. Infant mortality rates increased several years after the tree ring reductions. Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus