Limits...
Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Growth Suppression and Adverse Effects on Human Health Due to Air Pollution in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), Southern Poland.

Malik I, Danek M, Marchwińska-Wyrwał E, Danek T, Wistuba M, Krąpiec M - Water Air Soil Pollut (2012)

Bottom Line: Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981.At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature.Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Air pollution emissions were not continually monitored in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), southern Poland, and data is only available for the last 20 years. Long-lasting and severe tree ring reductions in pines growing 5-20 km north of the USID area recorded particularly high levels of air pollution emissions in the period 1950-1990. Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981. At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature. Increases in infant mortality and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males were also recorded in the USID during periods of high air pollution. Infant mortality rates increased several years after the tree ring reductions. Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlation and confidence intervals for total tree ring reductions, infant mortality rates and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males. a Results for lagged detrended infant mortality rates. b Results for lagged detrended lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368106&req=5

Fig11: Correlation and confidence intervals for total tree ring reductions, infant mortality rates and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males. a Results for lagged detrended infant mortality rates. b Results for lagged detrended lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males

Mentions: The high amount of tree ring reductions in sampled pines affected by air pollution correlates with periods of high infant mortality rates in the district (Fig. 10a). The infant mortality rate in the USID and the rest of Poland has only been similar since 1981. The amount of tree ring reductions has also decreased since 1980 and reached a relatively low level in 1990. It is interesting that the increase in the number of tree ring reductions occurred earlier than the increase in infant mortality rates (Fig. 10a). This means that if the reaction of the trees to air pollution occurs before the infant mortality increase, it is possible that pines react more immediately and may have lower threshold values for pollutant content in the air. The calculation of the correlation between infant mortality and tree ring reduction shows the highest value of correlation coefficient (from 0.40 to 0.42) when a lag of 6–8 years is introduced between tree ring reduction and infant mortality, but there is also a correlation between data when there is no time lag (0.39) (Fig. 11a). It is convincing since there should be a time lag of at least 9 months due to the length of the pregnancy period when effects resulting from the exposure of the mother and fetus to air pollution can occur. As mentioned above, data shows longer lag periods in relation to high levels of air pollution. The increase of infant mortality over time (a 6–8-year delay) is, most probably, an effect of the long-term exposure to air pollution of women who were weakened even before pregnancy. There was a lag in the peak in infant mortality due to the cumulative effect of years of high air pollution emissions.Fig. 10


Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Growth Suppression and Adverse Effects on Human Health Due to Air Pollution in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), Southern Poland.

Malik I, Danek M, Marchwińska-Wyrwał E, Danek T, Wistuba M, Krąpiec M - Water Air Soil Pollut (2012)

Correlation and confidence intervals for total tree ring reductions, infant mortality rates and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males. a Results for lagged detrended infant mortality rates. b Results for lagged detrended lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3368106&req=5

Fig11: Correlation and confidence intervals for total tree ring reductions, infant mortality rates and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males. a Results for lagged detrended infant mortality rates. b Results for lagged detrended lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males
Mentions: The high amount of tree ring reductions in sampled pines affected by air pollution correlates with periods of high infant mortality rates in the district (Fig. 10a). The infant mortality rate in the USID and the rest of Poland has only been similar since 1981. The amount of tree ring reductions has also decreased since 1980 and reached a relatively low level in 1990. It is interesting that the increase in the number of tree ring reductions occurred earlier than the increase in infant mortality rates (Fig. 10a). This means that if the reaction of the trees to air pollution occurs before the infant mortality increase, it is possible that pines react more immediately and may have lower threshold values for pollutant content in the air. The calculation of the correlation between infant mortality and tree ring reduction shows the highest value of correlation coefficient (from 0.40 to 0.42) when a lag of 6–8 years is introduced between tree ring reduction and infant mortality, but there is also a correlation between data when there is no time lag (0.39) (Fig. 11a). It is convincing since there should be a time lag of at least 9 months due to the length of the pregnancy period when effects resulting from the exposure of the mother and fetus to air pollution can occur. As mentioned above, data shows longer lag periods in relation to high levels of air pollution. The increase of infant mortality over time (a 6–8-year delay) is, most probably, an effect of the long-term exposure to air pollution of women who were weakened even before pregnancy. There was a lag in the peak in infant mortality due to the cumulative effect of years of high air pollution emissions.Fig. 10

Bottom Line: Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981.At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature.Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Air pollution emissions were not continually monitored in the Upper Silesian Industrial District (USID), southern Poland, and data is only available for the last 20 years. Long-lasting and severe tree ring reductions in pines growing 5-20 km north of the USID area recorded particularly high levels of air pollution emissions in the period 1950-1990. Especially high amounts of reductions and many missing rings were found in the period 1964-1981. At the same time, pines growing 60 km west of the USID do not record deep ring reductions; this proves that the phenomenon is of a regional nature. Increases in infant mortality and lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancer morbidity rates among males were also recorded in the USID during periods of high air pollution. Infant mortality rates increased several years after the tree ring reductions. Therefore, it may be possible to use tree ring reductions as an early indicator of the occurrence of adverse effects on human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus