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Phocine distemper outbreak, The Netherlands, 2002.

Rijks JM, Van de Bildt MW, Jensen T, Philippa JD, Osterhaus AD, Kuiken T - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Bottom Line: During the 2002 phocine distemper epidemic, 2,284 seals, primarily harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were found stranded along the Dutch coast.Stranding pattern varied with age, sex, state of decomposition, wind, and location.Cumulative proportion of deaths (54%) was comparable to that in the first reported epidemic in 1988.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dutch Wildlife Health Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
During the 2002 phocine distemper epidemic, 2,284 seals, primarily harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were found stranded along the Dutch coast. Stranding pattern varied with age, sex, state of decomposition, wind, and location. Cumulative proportion of deaths (54%) was comparable to that in the first reported epidemic in 1988.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Weekly stranding rate of stranded harbor seals in each age category, by sex.
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FA.2: Weekly stranding rate of stranded harbor seals in each age category, by sex.

Mentions: Age and sex affected temporal distribution of strandings. The median stranding date varied significantly among age categories (p<0.001). The date was significantly earlier for subadults than for juveniles and adults (p<0.05; Figure 1B). Subadults display considerably more social play than seals in other age categories, especially in early summer (10). In contrast, juveniles and their mothers are relatively more separated from other seals during the lactation period, are more sedentary, and have fewer new contacts (11,12). The median stranding date for males was significantly earlier than that for females in juveniles (p<0.001), subadults (p<0.001), and adults (p<0.001) (Figure A1 and A2). The average change in the number of individually identified seals hauled out between consecutive days is significantly higher for males than for females (12), and both subadult and adult males have the longest and most aggressive interactions with each other (13). These behavioral differences suggest that contact rates and intensity of contact with other seals, including seals with PDV infection, were higher for subadults at the start of the epidemic than for juveniles and adults, and higher for males than females, thus increasing the risk and severity of infection. Alternatively, the above patterns may be linked to age-related and sex-related differences in the effects of contaminants. The contaminant levels in the tissues of seals that died in the 1988 PDV epidemic were considered sufficiently high to cause immunosuppression and thus to increase the severity of the PDV outbreak (14). Pollutant levels in tissues of seals that died during the 2002 PDV epidemic have yet to be reported.


Phocine distemper outbreak, The Netherlands, 2002.

Rijks JM, Van de Bildt MW, Jensen T, Philippa JD, Osterhaus AD, Kuiken T - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Weekly stranding rate of stranded harbor seals in each age category, by sex.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367637&req=5

FA.2: Weekly stranding rate of stranded harbor seals in each age category, by sex.
Mentions: Age and sex affected temporal distribution of strandings. The median stranding date varied significantly among age categories (p<0.001). The date was significantly earlier for subadults than for juveniles and adults (p<0.05; Figure 1B). Subadults display considerably more social play than seals in other age categories, especially in early summer (10). In contrast, juveniles and their mothers are relatively more separated from other seals during the lactation period, are more sedentary, and have fewer new contacts (11,12). The median stranding date for males was significantly earlier than that for females in juveniles (p<0.001), subadults (p<0.001), and adults (p<0.001) (Figure A1 and A2). The average change in the number of individually identified seals hauled out between consecutive days is significantly higher for males than for females (12), and both subadult and adult males have the longest and most aggressive interactions with each other (13). These behavioral differences suggest that contact rates and intensity of contact with other seals, including seals with PDV infection, were higher for subadults at the start of the epidemic than for juveniles and adults, and higher for males than females, thus increasing the risk and severity of infection. Alternatively, the above patterns may be linked to age-related and sex-related differences in the effects of contaminants. The contaminant levels in the tissues of seals that died in the 1988 PDV epidemic were considered sufficiently high to cause immunosuppression and thus to increase the severity of the PDV outbreak (14). Pollutant levels in tissues of seals that died during the 2002 PDV epidemic have yet to be reported.

Bottom Line: During the 2002 phocine distemper epidemic, 2,284 seals, primarily harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were found stranded along the Dutch coast.Stranding pattern varied with age, sex, state of decomposition, wind, and location.Cumulative proportion of deaths (54%) was comparable to that in the first reported epidemic in 1988.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dutch Wildlife Health Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
During the 2002 phocine distemper epidemic, 2,284 seals, primarily harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), were found stranded along the Dutch coast. Stranding pattern varied with age, sex, state of decomposition, wind, and location. Cumulative proportion of deaths (54%) was comparable to that in the first reported epidemic in 1988.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus