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Porcine noroviruses related to human noroviruses.

Wang QH, Han MG, Cheetham S, Souza M, Funk JA, Saif LJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Bottom Line: Six samples were positive for NoV.Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3' end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified.These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Animal Health Research Program, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA.

ABSTRACT
Detection of genogroup II (GII) norovirus (NoV) RNA from adult pigs in Japan and Europe and GII NoV antibodies in US swine raises public health concerns about zoonotic transmission of porcine NoVs to humans, although no NoVs have been detected in US swine. To detect porcine NoVs and to investigate their genetic diversity and relatedness to human NoVs, 275 fecal samples from normal US adult swine were screened by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with calicivirus universal primers. Six samples were positive for NoV. Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3' end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified. One genotype of porcine NoVs was genetically and antigenically related to human NoVs and replicated in gnotobiotic pigs. These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

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Antigenic cross-reactivity between human genogroup (G) II norovirus (NoV) capsid proteins and a pig convalescent-phase antiserum (LL616) against porcine QW101-like (GII-18) NoV was determined by Western blot. The CsCl-gradient purified viruslike particles (1,250 ng) were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, and tested with LL616. The sucrose-cushion (40%, wt/vol) purified Sf9 insect cell proteins acted as a negative control (lane 8). Lane 1, molecular weight marker (kDa); lanes 2–7, Hu/GI-3/Desert Shield, Hu/GII-1/Hawaii, Hu/GII-3/Toronto, Hu/GII-4/MD145, Hu/GII-4/HS66, and Hu/GII-6/Florida, respectively.
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Figure 5: Antigenic cross-reactivity between human genogroup (G) II norovirus (NoV) capsid proteins and a pig convalescent-phase antiserum (LL616) against porcine QW101-like (GII-18) NoV was determined by Western blot. The CsCl-gradient purified viruslike particles (1,250 ng) were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, and tested with LL616. The sucrose-cushion (40%, wt/vol) purified Sf9 insect cell proteins acted as a negative control (lane 8). Lane 1, molecular weight marker (kDa); lanes 2–7, Hu/GI-3/Desert Shield, Hu/GII-1/Hawaii, Hu/GII-3/Toronto, Hu/GII-4/MD145, Hu/GII-4/HS66, and Hu/GII-6/Florida, respectively.

Mentions: Antisera to QW101-like (QW126) porcine NoVs cross-reacted with VLPs of human GII NoVs in ELISA and Western blot. In ELISA (Table 4), the pig convalescent-phase antiserum (LL616) to QW101-like porcine NoV QW126 strain showed higher titers (1:400–1:800) to GII-3/Toronto, GII-4/MD145, GII-4/HS66, and GII-6/Florida strains; a lower titer (1:100) to GII-1/Hawaii strain; and lowest titer (1:10) to GI-3/Desert Shield strain. In Western blot (Figure 5), the capsid proteins (59–60 kDa) of Toronto, MD145, HS66, and Florida strains, but not the Hawaii and Desert Shield strains, were detected by pig antiserum LL616 but not the negative control serum (data not shown). Thus, 1-way antigenic cross-reactivity exists between human NoV antigens and porcine NoV (GII-18) antiserum, with moderate cross-reactivity to human NoVs GII-3, 4, and 6; low cross-reactivity to GII-1; and very low cross-reactivity to GI-3.


Porcine noroviruses related to human noroviruses.

Wang QH, Han MG, Cheetham S, Souza M, Funk JA, Saif LJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Antigenic cross-reactivity between human genogroup (G) II norovirus (NoV) capsid proteins and a pig convalescent-phase antiserum (LL616) against porcine QW101-like (GII-18) NoV was determined by Western blot. The CsCl-gradient purified viruslike particles (1,250 ng) were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, and tested with LL616. The sucrose-cushion (40%, wt/vol) purified Sf9 insect cell proteins acted as a negative control (lane 8). Lane 1, molecular weight marker (kDa); lanes 2–7, Hu/GI-3/Desert Shield, Hu/GII-1/Hawaii, Hu/GII-3/Toronto, Hu/GII-4/MD145, Hu/GII-4/HS66, and Hu/GII-6/Florida, respectively.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367634&req=5

Figure 5: Antigenic cross-reactivity between human genogroup (G) II norovirus (NoV) capsid proteins and a pig convalescent-phase antiserum (LL616) against porcine QW101-like (GII-18) NoV was determined by Western blot. The CsCl-gradient purified viruslike particles (1,250 ng) were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, and tested with LL616. The sucrose-cushion (40%, wt/vol) purified Sf9 insect cell proteins acted as a negative control (lane 8). Lane 1, molecular weight marker (kDa); lanes 2–7, Hu/GI-3/Desert Shield, Hu/GII-1/Hawaii, Hu/GII-3/Toronto, Hu/GII-4/MD145, Hu/GII-4/HS66, and Hu/GII-6/Florida, respectively.
Mentions: Antisera to QW101-like (QW126) porcine NoVs cross-reacted with VLPs of human GII NoVs in ELISA and Western blot. In ELISA (Table 4), the pig convalescent-phase antiserum (LL616) to QW101-like porcine NoV QW126 strain showed higher titers (1:400–1:800) to GII-3/Toronto, GII-4/MD145, GII-4/HS66, and GII-6/Florida strains; a lower titer (1:100) to GII-1/Hawaii strain; and lowest titer (1:10) to GI-3/Desert Shield strain. In Western blot (Figure 5), the capsid proteins (59–60 kDa) of Toronto, MD145, HS66, and Florida strains, but not the Hawaii and Desert Shield strains, were detected by pig antiserum LL616 but not the negative control serum (data not shown). Thus, 1-way antigenic cross-reactivity exists between human NoV antigens and porcine NoV (GII-18) antiserum, with moderate cross-reactivity to human NoVs GII-3, 4, and 6; low cross-reactivity to GII-1; and very low cross-reactivity to GI-3.

Bottom Line: Six samples were positive for NoV.Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3' end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified.These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Animal Health Research Program, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA.

ABSTRACT
Detection of genogroup II (GII) norovirus (NoV) RNA from adult pigs in Japan and Europe and GII NoV antibodies in US swine raises public health concerns about zoonotic transmission of porcine NoVs to humans, although no NoVs have been detected in US swine. To detect porcine NoVs and to investigate their genetic diversity and relatedness to human NoVs, 275 fecal samples from normal US adult swine were screened by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with calicivirus universal primers. Six samples were positive for NoV. Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3' end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified. One genotype of porcine NoVs was genetically and antigenically related to human NoVs and replicated in gnotobiotic pigs. These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus