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Porcine noroviruses related to human noroviruses.

Wang QH, Han MG, Cheetham S, Souza M, Funk JA, Saif LJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Bottom Line: Six samples were positive for NoV.Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3' end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified.These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Animal Health Research Program, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA.

ABSTRACT
Detection of genogroup II (GII) norovirus (NoV) RNA from adult pigs in Japan and Europe and GII NoV antibodies in US swine raises public health concerns about zoonotic transmission of porcine NoVs to humans, although no NoVs have been detected in US swine. To detect porcine NoVs and to investigate their genetic diversity and relatedness to human NoVs, 275 fecal samples from normal US adult swine were screened by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with calicivirus universal primers. Six samples were positive for NoV. Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3' end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified. One genotype of porcine NoVs was genetically and antigenically related to human NoVs and replicated in gnotobiotic pigs. These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Immune electron micrograph of porcine noroviruses (NoVs). The diluted intestinal contents of a gnotobiotic pig euthanized on postinoculation day 5 to QW101-like porcine NoVs (QW144) were incubated with convalescent-phase serum LL616 from another gnotobiotic pig inoculated with QW101-like porcine NoVs (QW126) and visualized by negative staining with 3% phosphotungstic acid. The arrow indicates a small clump of NoV-like particles.
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Figure 4: Immune electron micrograph of porcine noroviruses (NoVs). The diluted intestinal contents of a gnotobiotic pig euthanized on postinoculation day 5 to QW101-like porcine NoVs (QW144) were incubated with convalescent-phase serum LL616 from another gnotobiotic pig inoculated with QW101-like porcine NoVs (QW126) and visualized by negative staining with 3% phosphotungstic acid. The arrow indicates a small clump of NoV-like particles.

Mentions: The porcine NoVs replicated in gnotobiotic pigs. Two pigs were inoculated with QW101-like GII-18 porcine NoVs (QW126 and QW144 strains) to verify their replication in pigs as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and IEM and to produce convalescent-phase serum to examine antigenic reactivity with human NoVs. These 2 strains were confirmed as QW101-like porcine NoVs in both the RdRp (169-nt) and the capsid S domain (363-nt) regions by sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products (Q.H. Wang and L.J. Saif, unpub. data). They shared 99% and 100% amino acid identities to the QW101 strain in the 2 regions, respectively. Porcine NoV shedding, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR with primer pair PNV7/8, was detected at PID 3–5 (euthanized) after QW144 exposure, coincident with mild diarrhea. The RT-PCR–detectable units of the rectal swab RNA increased from negative at PID <2, 103 at PID 3–4, and 104 at PID 5 (large intestinal contents). Norovirus shedding was detected only at PID 5 without diarrhea after QW126 exposure. Examination of the intestinal contents of the pig inoculated with QW144 by IEM with pig convalescent-phase antiserum LL616 showed clumps of ≈32-nm NoV particles (Figure 4). The 2 control pigs had no virus shedding or diarrhea. Detailed studies of the pathogenesis of porcine NoVs in gnotobiotic pigs are in progress (S. Cheetham and L.J. Saif, unpub. data).


Porcine noroviruses related to human noroviruses.

Wang QH, Han MG, Cheetham S, Souza M, Funk JA, Saif LJ - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Immune electron micrograph of porcine noroviruses (NoVs). The diluted intestinal contents of a gnotobiotic pig euthanized on postinoculation day 5 to QW101-like porcine NoVs (QW144) were incubated with convalescent-phase serum LL616 from another gnotobiotic pig inoculated with QW101-like porcine NoVs (QW126) and visualized by negative staining with 3% phosphotungstic acid. The arrow indicates a small clump of NoV-like particles.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367634&req=5

Figure 4: Immune electron micrograph of porcine noroviruses (NoVs). The diluted intestinal contents of a gnotobiotic pig euthanized on postinoculation day 5 to QW101-like porcine NoVs (QW144) were incubated with convalescent-phase serum LL616 from another gnotobiotic pig inoculated with QW101-like porcine NoVs (QW126) and visualized by negative staining with 3% phosphotungstic acid. The arrow indicates a small clump of NoV-like particles.
Mentions: The porcine NoVs replicated in gnotobiotic pigs. Two pigs were inoculated with QW101-like GII-18 porcine NoVs (QW126 and QW144 strains) to verify their replication in pigs as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and IEM and to produce convalescent-phase serum to examine antigenic reactivity with human NoVs. These 2 strains were confirmed as QW101-like porcine NoVs in both the RdRp (169-nt) and the capsid S domain (363-nt) regions by sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products (Q.H. Wang and L.J. Saif, unpub. data). They shared 99% and 100% amino acid identities to the QW101 strain in the 2 regions, respectively. Porcine NoV shedding, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR with primer pair PNV7/8, was detected at PID 3–5 (euthanized) after QW144 exposure, coincident with mild diarrhea. The RT-PCR–detectable units of the rectal swab RNA increased from negative at PID <2, 103 at PID 3–4, and 104 at PID 5 (large intestinal contents). Norovirus shedding was detected only at PID 5 without diarrhea after QW126 exposure. Examination of the intestinal contents of the pig inoculated with QW144 by IEM with pig convalescent-phase antiserum LL616 showed clumps of ≈32-nm NoV particles (Figure 4). The 2 control pigs had no virus shedding or diarrhea. Detailed studies of the pathogenesis of porcine NoVs in gnotobiotic pigs are in progress (S. Cheetham and L.J. Saif, unpub. data).

Bottom Line: Six samples were positive for NoV.Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3' end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified.These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Animal Health Research Program, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA.

ABSTRACT
Detection of genogroup II (GII) norovirus (NoV) RNA from adult pigs in Japan and Europe and GII NoV antibodies in US swine raises public health concerns about zoonotic transmission of porcine NoVs to humans, although no NoVs have been detected in US swine. To detect porcine NoVs and to investigate their genetic diversity and relatedness to human NoVs, 275 fecal samples from normal US adult swine were screened by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with calicivirus universal primers. Six samples were positive for NoV. Based on sequence analysis of 3 kb on the 3' end of 5 porcine NoVs, 3 genotypes in GII and a potential recombinant were identified. One genotype of porcine NoVs was genetically and antigenically related to human NoVs and replicated in gnotobiotic pigs. These results raise concerns of whether subclinically infected adult swine may be reservoirs of new human NoVs or if porcine/human GII recombinants could emerge.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus