Bartonella quintana in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
Bottom Line: We identified a Bartonella quintana strain by polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing of DNA extracted from lysed erythrocytes and cultured colonies grown from peripheral blood collected from a captive-bred cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).This report describes naturally acquired B. quintana infection in a nonhuman primate.
Affiliation: University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
We identified a Bartonella quintana strain by polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing of DNA extracted from lysed erythrocytes and cultured colonies grown from peripheral blood collected from a captive-bred cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). This report describes naturally acquired B. quintana infection in a nonhuman primate.
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Mentions: A young adult female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), born October 1, 1998, in a breeding facility in Vietnam, was shipped on February 28, 2001, to Covance Inc. (Alice, TX, USA), where she was quarantined and acclimated by the vendor. On April 30, 2001, the monkey was shipped to Laboratory Animal Services, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation (East Hanover, NJ, USA) and held in quarantine until released on June 15, 2001, for study and assigned an identification number of 1505. Numerous procedures, treatments, and screening tests were conducted by the vendor during the monkey's quarantine in Texas and before its arrival in New Jersey. These included the following: 1) vaccination against hepatitis A (genus Hepatovirus) and measles (genus Morbillivirus); 2) serologic testing for cytomegalovirus (subfamily Betaherpesvirinae; positive), herpesvirus B (family Herpesviridae, negative), simian type D virus (simian retrovirus; SRV-1, -2, and -3; negative), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV, genus Lentivirus; negative), simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV, genus BLV-HTLV retroviruses; negative); 3) testing by polymerase chain reaction for SRV-1, -2, and -3 (negative); 4) Mantoux skin test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative ×4); and 5) treatment for endoparasites with albendazole and avermectin, for ectoparasites with insecticide dust, and for Plasmodium spp. with chloroquine and primaquine. During the course of routine microscopic review of no. 1505's peripheral blood collected pretest (July 9, 2001) and stained with Wright stain (Hema-Tek 2000, Bayer Corporation, Wright Stain Pak, Curtin Matheson Scientific Inc., Houston, TX, USA; erythrocytic morphologic changes (moderate to marked stomatocytosis, punctate discoloration, or polychromatophilic aggregation) suggestive of a hemotropic parasite were observed (Figure 1). Malarial parasites were not observed. At the resolution of light microscopy (≈2 μ), basophilic particles were identified in association with erythrocyte membranes, with less well-defined, pale-blue inclusions seen within erythrocytes. Mean corpuscular volume was increased (82.2 fL). Blood from the same K-EDTA collection tube was transferred to the Electron Microscopy Laboratory (Novartis) for both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation. Although intra- and extra-erythrocytic bacterial organisms were confirmed by TEM, and SEM identified numerous pits, the morphologic characteristics were not unique identifiers for Bartonella spp. (Figure 2). Since the sample was discarded after aliquots were taken for electron microscopy, a new K-EDTA blood sample was collected for culture from monkey no. 1505 and sent on ice by overnight delivery to the Intracellular Pathogens Laboratory, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Clinical observations during the study dosing period were unremarkable, and no unusual lesions were observed at necropsy or during histologic examination of selected tissues.