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Global spread of multiple aminoglycoside resistance genes.

Yamane K, Wachino J, Doi Y, Kurokawa H, Arakawa Y - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Bottom Line: Emergence of the newly identified 16S rRNA methylases RmtA, RmtB, and ArmA in pathogenic gram-negative bacilli has been a growing concern.ArmA, which had been identified exclusively in Europe, was also found in several gram-negative pathogenic bacilli isolated in Japan, suggesting global dissemination of hazardous multiple aminoglycoside resistance genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Emergence of the newly identified 16S rRNA methylases RmtA, RmtB, and ArmA in pathogenic gram-negative bacilli has been a growing concern. ArmA, which had been identified exclusively in Europe, was also found in several gram-negative pathogenic bacilli isolated in Japan, suggesting global dissemination of hazardous multiple aminoglycoside resistance genes.

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Phylogenic relationship among the 16S rRNA methylases. Each amino acid sequence was subjected to the analysis referred to the following sources: FmrO, accession no. JN0651; Kmr, accession no. AB164642; GrmA, accession no. M55520; GrmB, accession no. M55521; GrmO, accession no. AY524043; Kan, accession no. AJ414669; Sgm, accession no. A45282; KgmB, accession no. S60108; NbrB, accession no. AF038408; FMRO, Q08325; RmtA, (6); RmtB, (7); ArmA, (8); predicted enoyl-CoA hydratase/carnithine racemase of uncultured marine gamma proteobacterium EBAC20E09, accession no. AAS73112; putative methylase of Chlorobium tepidum, accession no. AAM72273; hypothetical protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans, accession no. AAR39385. The ClustalW program provided by the DNA Data Bank of Japan (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/search/clustalw-e.html) was used in this study.
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Figure 1: Phylogenic relationship among the 16S rRNA methylases. Each amino acid sequence was subjected to the analysis referred to the following sources: FmrO, accession no. JN0651; Kmr, accession no. AB164642; GrmA, accession no. M55520; GrmB, accession no. M55521; GrmO, accession no. AY524043; Kan, accession no. AJ414669; Sgm, accession no. A45282; KgmB, accession no. S60108; NbrB, accession no. AF038408; FMRO, Q08325; RmtA, (6); RmtB, (7); ArmA, (8); predicted enoyl-CoA hydratase/carnithine racemase of uncultured marine gamma proteobacterium EBAC20E09, accession no. AAS73112; putative methylase of Chlorobium tepidum, accession no. AAM72273; hypothetical protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans, accession no. AAR39385. The ClustalW program provided by the DNA Data Bank of Japan (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/search/clustalw-e.html) was used in this study.

Mentions: These enzymes are capable of conferring an extraordinary high level of resistance (MIC >512 mg/L) against most clinically important aminoglycosides as was observed among aminoglycoside-producing actinomycetes, suggesting their probable phylogenic relationship with the intrinsic 16S rRNA methylases of actinomycetes (Figure). RmtA shared 82% amino acid identity with RmtB, but the amino acid sequence similarities between 16S rRNA methylases isolated from pathogenic gram-negative microbes and those from aminoglycoside-producing actinomycetes were relatively low (≤33%). From analyses of the genetic environments of genes encoding 16S rRNA methylases, the rmtA gene is likely associated with the mercury-resistant transposon Tn5041 (10); the rmtB gene was found in the flanking region of Tn3-like structure (7). The armA gene was found on a large plasmid which carries a type 1 integron (8) that mediates various gene cassettes responsible for multiple antimicrobial resistance. The structure of these genetic environments implied that the genes for these 16S rRNA methylases are mediated by mobile genetic elements carried by transferable large plasmids (7,8,10). In fact, the rmtA gene was transferred from P. aeruginosa strain AR-2 to an aminoglycoside-susceptible P. aeruginosa strain 105 by conjugation in vitro (6). The rmtB gene was also transferred from S. marcescens S-95 to E. coli by transformation (7). The armA gene was located on a composite transposon Tn1548 (11).


Global spread of multiple aminoglycoside resistance genes.

Yamane K, Wachino J, Doi Y, Kurokawa H, Arakawa Y - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Phylogenic relationship among the 16S rRNA methylases. Each amino acid sequence was subjected to the analysis referred to the following sources: FmrO, accession no. JN0651; Kmr, accession no. AB164642; GrmA, accession no. M55520; GrmB, accession no. M55521; GrmO, accession no. AY524043; Kan, accession no. AJ414669; Sgm, accession no. A45282; KgmB, accession no. S60108; NbrB, accession no. AF038408; FMRO, Q08325; RmtA, (6); RmtB, (7); ArmA, (8); predicted enoyl-CoA hydratase/carnithine racemase of uncultured marine gamma proteobacterium EBAC20E09, accession no. AAS73112; putative methylase of Chlorobium tepidum, accession no. AAM72273; hypothetical protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans, accession no. AAR39385. The ClustalW program provided by the DNA Data Bank of Japan (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/search/clustalw-e.html) was used in this study.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367594&req=5

Figure 1: Phylogenic relationship among the 16S rRNA methylases. Each amino acid sequence was subjected to the analysis referred to the following sources: FmrO, accession no. JN0651; Kmr, accession no. AB164642; GrmA, accession no. M55520; GrmB, accession no. M55521; GrmO, accession no. AY524043; Kan, accession no. AJ414669; Sgm, accession no. A45282; KgmB, accession no. S60108; NbrB, accession no. AF038408; FMRO, Q08325; RmtA, (6); RmtB, (7); ArmA, (8); predicted enoyl-CoA hydratase/carnithine racemase of uncultured marine gamma proteobacterium EBAC20E09, accession no. AAS73112; putative methylase of Chlorobium tepidum, accession no. AAM72273; hypothetical protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans, accession no. AAR39385. The ClustalW program provided by the DNA Data Bank of Japan (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/search/clustalw-e.html) was used in this study.
Mentions: These enzymes are capable of conferring an extraordinary high level of resistance (MIC >512 mg/L) against most clinically important aminoglycosides as was observed among aminoglycoside-producing actinomycetes, suggesting their probable phylogenic relationship with the intrinsic 16S rRNA methylases of actinomycetes (Figure). RmtA shared 82% amino acid identity with RmtB, but the amino acid sequence similarities between 16S rRNA methylases isolated from pathogenic gram-negative microbes and those from aminoglycoside-producing actinomycetes were relatively low (≤33%). From analyses of the genetic environments of genes encoding 16S rRNA methylases, the rmtA gene is likely associated with the mercury-resistant transposon Tn5041 (10); the rmtB gene was found in the flanking region of Tn3-like structure (7). The armA gene was found on a large plasmid which carries a type 1 integron (8) that mediates various gene cassettes responsible for multiple antimicrobial resistance. The structure of these genetic environments implied that the genes for these 16S rRNA methylases are mediated by mobile genetic elements carried by transferable large plasmids (7,8,10). In fact, the rmtA gene was transferred from P. aeruginosa strain AR-2 to an aminoglycoside-susceptible P. aeruginosa strain 105 by conjugation in vitro (6). The rmtB gene was also transferred from S. marcescens S-95 to E. coli by transformation (7). The armA gene was located on a composite transposon Tn1548 (11).

Bottom Line: Emergence of the newly identified 16S rRNA methylases RmtA, RmtB, and ArmA in pathogenic gram-negative bacilli has been a growing concern.ArmA, which had been identified exclusively in Europe, was also found in several gram-negative pathogenic bacilli isolated in Japan, suggesting global dissemination of hazardous multiple aminoglycoside resistance genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Emergence of the newly identified 16S rRNA methylases RmtA, RmtB, and ArmA in pathogenic gram-negative bacilli has been a growing concern. ArmA, which had been identified exclusively in Europe, was also found in several gram-negative pathogenic bacilli isolated in Japan, suggesting global dissemination of hazardous multiple aminoglycoside resistance genes.

Show MeSH