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Emergence of Toscana virus in Europe.

Charrel RN, Gallian P, Navarro-Mari JM, Nicoletti L, Papa A, Sánchez-Seco MP, Tenorio A, de Lamballerie X - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Bottom Line: Therefore, TOSV must be considered an emerging pathogen.Here, we review the epidemiology of TOSV in Europe and determine questions that should be addressed in future studies.Despite increasing evidence of its major role in medicine as an emerging cause of CNS infections, TOSV remains an unstudied pathogen, and few physicians are aware of its potential to cause CNS infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Virus Emergents, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France. rnc-virophdm@gulliver.fr

ABSTRACT
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus first identified in 1971 from the sandfly Phlebotomus perniciosus in central Italy. Many case reports in travelers and clinical research and epidemiologic studies conducted around the Mediterranean region have shown that TOSV has a tropism for the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major cause of meningitis and encephalitis in countries in which it circulates. In central Italy, TOSV is the most frequent cause of meningitis from May to October, far exceeding enteroviruses. In other northern Mediterranean countries, TOSV is among the 3 most prevalent viruses associated with meningitis during the warm seasons. Therefore, TOSV must be considered an emerging pathogen. Here, we review the epidemiology of TOSV in Europe and determine questions that should be addressed in future studies. Despite increasing evidence of its major role in medicine as an emerging cause of CNS infections, TOSV remains an unstudied pathogen, and few physicians are aware of its potential to cause CNS infections.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from nucleotide (A) and amino acid (B) sequences corresponding to a 236-nucleotide fragment of the N gene. Alignments were obtained with ClustalX 1.8 and p-distance matrices were obtained. Neighbor-joining by using 100 pseudoreplications for the bootstrap tests were carried out after excluding gaps from the alignments. Bootstrap values <75% are not shown. The numbers attached to branches are bootstrap values. A value of 0.05 substitutions per site is equivalent to 5% changes.
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Figure 2: Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from nucleotide (A) and amino acid (B) sequences corresponding to a 236-nucleotide fragment of the N gene. Alignments were obtained with ClustalX 1.8 and p-distance matrices were obtained. Neighbor-joining by using 100 pseudoreplications for the bootstrap tests were carried out after excluding gaps from the alignments. Bootstrap values <75% are not shown. The numbers attached to branches are bootstrap values. A value of 0.05 substitutions per site is equivalent to 5% changes.

Mentions: To date, sequence data are too scarce to perform significant phylogenetic analyses. We must therefore set up a large program of complete genome sequencing of the strains collected in different regions and simultaneously to encourage the development of viral isolation programs in all countries surrounding the Mediterranean where vectors are circulating to better understand the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, and mechanisms driving the evolution of TOSV (Figure 2).


Emergence of Toscana virus in Europe.

Charrel RN, Gallian P, Navarro-Mari JM, Nicoletti L, Papa A, Sánchez-Seco MP, Tenorio A, de Lamballerie X - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from nucleotide (A) and amino acid (B) sequences corresponding to a 236-nucleotide fragment of the N gene. Alignments were obtained with ClustalX 1.8 and p-distance matrices were obtained. Neighbor-joining by using 100 pseudoreplications for the bootstrap tests were carried out after excluding gaps from the alignments. Bootstrap values <75% are not shown. The numbers attached to branches are bootstrap values. A value of 0.05 substitutions per site is equivalent to 5% changes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367371&req=5

Figure 2: Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from nucleotide (A) and amino acid (B) sequences corresponding to a 236-nucleotide fragment of the N gene. Alignments were obtained with ClustalX 1.8 and p-distance matrices were obtained. Neighbor-joining by using 100 pseudoreplications for the bootstrap tests were carried out after excluding gaps from the alignments. Bootstrap values <75% are not shown. The numbers attached to branches are bootstrap values. A value of 0.05 substitutions per site is equivalent to 5% changes.
Mentions: To date, sequence data are too scarce to perform significant phylogenetic analyses. We must therefore set up a large program of complete genome sequencing of the strains collected in different regions and simultaneously to encourage the development of viral isolation programs in all countries surrounding the Mediterranean where vectors are circulating to better understand the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, and mechanisms driving the evolution of TOSV (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Therefore, TOSV must be considered an emerging pathogen.Here, we review the epidemiology of TOSV in Europe and determine questions that should be addressed in future studies.Despite increasing evidence of its major role in medicine as an emerging cause of CNS infections, TOSV remains an unstudied pathogen, and few physicians are aware of its potential to cause CNS infections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unité des Virus Emergents, Faculté de Médecine, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France. rnc-virophdm@gulliver.fr

ABSTRACT
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus first identified in 1971 from the sandfly Phlebotomus perniciosus in central Italy. Many case reports in travelers and clinical research and epidemiologic studies conducted around the Mediterranean region have shown that TOSV has a tropism for the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major cause of meningitis and encephalitis in countries in which it circulates. In central Italy, TOSV is the most frequent cause of meningitis from May to October, far exceeding enteroviruses. In other northern Mediterranean countries, TOSV is among the 3 most prevalent viruses associated with meningitis during the warm seasons. Therefore, TOSV must be considered an emerging pathogen. Here, we review the epidemiology of TOSV in Europe and determine questions that should be addressed in future studies. Despite increasing evidence of its major role in medicine as an emerging cause of CNS infections, TOSV remains an unstudied pathogen, and few physicians are aware of its potential to cause CNS infections.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus