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Ehrlichia ruminantium, Sudan.

Muramatsu Y, Ukegawa SY, Rahim A, El Hussein M, Abdel Rahman MB, Abdel Gabbar KM, Chitambo AM, Komiya T, Mwase ET, Morita C, Tamura Y - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

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Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks... Amblyomma variegatum ticks, which are found in the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa, except in certain areas of southern Africa, are major vectors of E. ruminantium... The pCS20 DNA fragment of E. ruminantium was detected in 8 (8.2%) of 97 A. variegatum ticks and 2 (1.9%) of 106 A. lepidum ticks (χ= 3.123, by Yates correction)... AB218278)... The nucleotide sequence of Gedaref was found to be closely related to those of Senegal and Pokoase strains from western Africa and to South Africa Canine and Kümm1 strains from southern Africa (similarity = 90.53%–97.43%)... Gedaref formed a cluster with several strains that originated in southern and western Africa... As previously reported, the variation of map1 sequences of E. ruminantium strains does not reflect the geographic distribution of the strains... Gedaref was closely related to 3 southern African strains and a Caribbean strain in the pCS20 sequence but different from western African strains... If one considers the distribution of A. lepidum, results of genetic analyses in the pCS20 gene regions of Gedaref are important for epidemiologic research on E. ruminantium... Nevertheless, detection of E. ruminantium in A. variegatum in Sudan had not previously been reported... Our results show that A. variegatum is also an important vector of E. ruminantium in Sudan... A. variegatum ticks are also found North and South America, Southeast Asia, and Australia... Thus, the potential spread of E. ruminantium to livestock is a continuous threat in these regions from the importation of tick-infested and subclinically infected wild animals from Africa and the importation of livestock from Caribbean islands.

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Neighbor-joining phylogram based on map1 nucleotide sequences of Ehrlichia ruminantium strains. Ninety-seven Amblyomma variegatum ticks were obtained from cattle in the suburbs of Juba in southern Sudan, and 106 A. lepidum ticks were obtained from camels in the suburbs of Gedaref in eastern Sudan in 2000. The amplicon used included all 3 variable regions in the map1 sequence (nucleotide positions 472–1377) (7). The nucleotide position refers to GenBank accession no. X74250. The amplicon without primer sequences (855 bp) was subjected to sequencing analysis. Sequence homogeneity was determined and multiple alignment analyses were conducted as previously described (9). A. marginale strain Pawhuska major surface protein 4 (GenBank accession no. AY127078) was used as an outgroup. WA, western Africa; SA, southern Africa; EA; eastern Africa. Kiswani is identical to Ludlow, Kümm1 is identical to Senegal, Kümm2 is identical to Omatjenne, Kwanyanga is identical to Lemco, and Sankat is identical to Mali (6).
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Figure 1: Neighbor-joining phylogram based on map1 nucleotide sequences of Ehrlichia ruminantium strains. Ninety-seven Amblyomma variegatum ticks were obtained from cattle in the suburbs of Juba in southern Sudan, and 106 A. lepidum ticks were obtained from camels in the suburbs of Gedaref in eastern Sudan in 2000. The amplicon used included all 3 variable regions in the map1 sequence (nucleotide positions 472–1377) (7). The nucleotide position refers to GenBank accession no. X74250. The amplicon without primer sequences (855 bp) was subjected to sequencing analysis. Sequence homogeneity was determined and multiple alignment analyses were conducted as previously described (9). A. marginale strain Pawhuska major surface protein 4 (GenBank accession no. AY127078) was used as an outgroup. WA, western Africa; SA, southern Africa; EA; eastern Africa. Kiswani is identical to Ludlow, Kümm1 is identical to Senegal, Kümm2 is identical to Omatjenne, Kwanyanga is identical to Lemco, and Sankat is identical to Mali (6).

Mentions: An 855-bp map1 nucleotide sequence obtained from 1 A. lepidum tick was provisionally named Gedaref (GenBank accession no. AB218278). The nucleotide sequence of Gedaref was found to be closely related to those of Senegal and Pokoase strains from western Africa and to South Africa Canine and Kümm1 strains from southern Africa (similarity = 90.53%–97.43%). Gedaref clustered with these 4 strains and with 6 other strains, including Kiswani from eastern Africa and Antigua from the Caribbean islands (Figure). In contrast, the nucleotide sequence of Gedaref showed 84.8% similarity with that of Um Banein, which has been known as the only strain of E. ruminantium in Sudan. Um Banein formed another cluster with Gardel, Lutale, and Umpala strains from southern Africa (Figure). The map1 coding sequence of Gedaref was closely related to those of strains Senegal, Ball3, South Africa Canine, and Pokoase (similarity = 92.61%–97.97%). Gedaref and these 4 strains formed a cluster and branch with Um Banein (similarity = 87.6%).


Ehrlichia ruminantium, Sudan.

Muramatsu Y, Ukegawa SY, Rahim A, El Hussein M, Abdel Rahman MB, Abdel Gabbar KM, Chitambo AM, Komiya T, Mwase ET, Morita C, Tamura Y - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005)

Neighbor-joining phylogram based on map1 nucleotide sequences of Ehrlichia ruminantium strains. Ninety-seven Amblyomma variegatum ticks were obtained from cattle in the suburbs of Juba in southern Sudan, and 106 A. lepidum ticks were obtained from camels in the suburbs of Gedaref in eastern Sudan in 2000. The amplicon used included all 3 variable regions in the map1 sequence (nucleotide positions 472–1377) (7). The nucleotide position refers to GenBank accession no. X74250. The amplicon without primer sequences (855 bp) was subjected to sequencing analysis. Sequence homogeneity was determined and multiple alignment analyses were conducted as previously described (9). A. marginale strain Pawhuska major surface protein 4 (GenBank accession no. AY127078) was used as an outgroup. WA, western Africa; SA, southern Africa; EA; eastern Africa. Kiswani is identical to Ludlow, Kümm1 is identical to Senegal, Kümm2 is identical to Omatjenne, Kwanyanga is identical to Lemco, and Sankat is identical to Mali (6).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367341&req=5

Figure 1: Neighbor-joining phylogram based on map1 nucleotide sequences of Ehrlichia ruminantium strains. Ninety-seven Amblyomma variegatum ticks were obtained from cattle in the suburbs of Juba in southern Sudan, and 106 A. lepidum ticks were obtained from camels in the suburbs of Gedaref in eastern Sudan in 2000. The amplicon used included all 3 variable regions in the map1 sequence (nucleotide positions 472–1377) (7). The nucleotide position refers to GenBank accession no. X74250. The amplicon without primer sequences (855 bp) was subjected to sequencing analysis. Sequence homogeneity was determined and multiple alignment analyses were conducted as previously described (9). A. marginale strain Pawhuska major surface protein 4 (GenBank accession no. AY127078) was used as an outgroup. WA, western Africa; SA, southern Africa; EA; eastern Africa. Kiswani is identical to Ludlow, Kümm1 is identical to Senegal, Kümm2 is identical to Omatjenne, Kwanyanga is identical to Lemco, and Sankat is identical to Mali (6).
Mentions: An 855-bp map1 nucleotide sequence obtained from 1 A. lepidum tick was provisionally named Gedaref (GenBank accession no. AB218278). The nucleotide sequence of Gedaref was found to be closely related to those of Senegal and Pokoase strains from western Africa and to South Africa Canine and Kümm1 strains from southern Africa (similarity = 90.53%–97.43%). Gedaref clustered with these 4 strains and with 6 other strains, including Kiswani from eastern Africa and Antigua from the Caribbean islands (Figure). In contrast, the nucleotide sequence of Gedaref showed 84.8% similarity with that of Um Banein, which has been known as the only strain of E. ruminantium in Sudan. Um Banein formed another cluster with Gardel, Lutale, and Umpala strains from southern Africa (Figure). The map1 coding sequence of Gedaref was closely related to those of strains Senegal, Ball3, South Africa Canine, and Pokoase (similarity = 92.61%–97.97%). Gedaref and these 4 strains formed a cluster and branch with Um Banein (similarity = 87.6%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

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Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks... Amblyomma variegatum ticks, which are found in the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa, except in certain areas of southern Africa, are major vectors of E. ruminantium... The pCS20 DNA fragment of E. ruminantium was detected in 8 (8.2%) of 97 A. variegatum ticks and 2 (1.9%) of 106 A. lepidum ticks (χ= 3.123, by Yates correction)... AB218278)... The nucleotide sequence of Gedaref was found to be closely related to those of Senegal and Pokoase strains from western Africa and to South Africa Canine and Kümm1 strains from southern Africa (similarity = 90.53%–97.43%)... Gedaref formed a cluster with several strains that originated in southern and western Africa... As previously reported, the variation of map1 sequences of E. ruminantium strains does not reflect the geographic distribution of the strains... Gedaref was closely related to 3 southern African strains and a Caribbean strain in the pCS20 sequence but different from western African strains... If one considers the distribution of A. lepidum, results of genetic analyses in the pCS20 gene regions of Gedaref are important for epidemiologic research on E. ruminantium... Nevertheless, detection of E. ruminantium in A. variegatum in Sudan had not previously been reported... Our results show that A. variegatum is also an important vector of E. ruminantium in Sudan... A. variegatum ticks are also found North and South America, Southeast Asia, and Australia... Thus, the potential spread of E. ruminantium to livestock is a continuous threat in these regions from the importation of tick-infested and subclinically infected wild animals from Africa and the importation of livestock from Caribbean islands.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus