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Vitamin D and musculoskeletal status in Nova Scotian women who wear concealing clothing.

Ojah RC, Welch JM - Nutrients (2012)

Bottom Line: The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p= 0.01).Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise.Bone status did not differ between groups (p= 0.9).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. rani.ojah@dal.ca

ABSTRACT
Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p= 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p= 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p= 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The means ± SD of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) levels for women who wore concealing clothing compared to pair matched women who dressed according to western norms. The dashed line represents the level of s-25(OH)D that is considered to be sufficient.
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nutrients-04-00399-f001: The means ± SD of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) levels for women who wore concealing clothing compared to pair matched women who dressed according to western norms. The dashed line represents the level of s-25(OH)D that is considered to be sufficient.

Mentions: Nine of the 11 study group and seven of the 11 comparative group subjects agreed to participate in the blood draw for 25(OH)D testing. This allowed for seven matched pairs to be statistically analyzed for differences in serum vitamin D levels. Given the controversy in the literature regarding what is an insufficient versus deficient level of s-25(OH)D, the levels were defined in this study as follows: severely deficient, <30 nmol·L−1; deficient, 30–49 nmol·L−1; insufficient, 50–74 nmol·L−1; and sufficient, ≥75 nmol·L−1 [23]. The mean s-25(OH)D concentration for the seven hijab-wearing women was significantly lower (p = 0.01) than that of their matched pairs who wore western-style clothing (Figure 1). When the difference in s-25(OH)D between groups was adjusted for vitamin D intake, s-25(OH)D remained lower in the hijab-wearing group (p = 0.05). Although there was considerable variance within each group, every woman in the study group had a lower s-25(OH)D than her matched pair. Additionally, the mean s-25(OH)D for all nine study group participants was lower than the mean of the 7 matched study group women, at 36.0 ± 25.5 nmol·L−1. Six of eight study group women had severe vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 30 nmol·L−1) but no comparative group women did. A trend between clothing type and severe vitamin D deficiency was detected (p = 0.06; FET). However, within the subset of participants who had vitamin D levels less than 75 nmol·L−1, a significant negative relationship between sunscreen use and s-25(OH)D was detected through linear regression (p = 0.03).


Vitamin D and musculoskeletal status in Nova Scotian women who wear concealing clothing.

Ojah RC, Welch JM - Nutrients (2012)

The means ± SD of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) levels for women who wore concealing clothing compared to pair matched women who dressed according to western norms. The dashed line represents the level of s-25(OH)D that is considered to be sufficient.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367264&req=5

nutrients-04-00399-f001: The means ± SD of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) levels for women who wore concealing clothing compared to pair matched women who dressed according to western norms. The dashed line represents the level of s-25(OH)D that is considered to be sufficient.
Mentions: Nine of the 11 study group and seven of the 11 comparative group subjects agreed to participate in the blood draw for 25(OH)D testing. This allowed for seven matched pairs to be statistically analyzed for differences in serum vitamin D levels. Given the controversy in the literature regarding what is an insufficient versus deficient level of s-25(OH)D, the levels were defined in this study as follows: severely deficient, <30 nmol·L−1; deficient, 30–49 nmol·L−1; insufficient, 50–74 nmol·L−1; and sufficient, ≥75 nmol·L−1 [23]. The mean s-25(OH)D concentration for the seven hijab-wearing women was significantly lower (p = 0.01) than that of their matched pairs who wore western-style clothing (Figure 1). When the difference in s-25(OH)D between groups was adjusted for vitamin D intake, s-25(OH)D remained lower in the hijab-wearing group (p = 0.05). Although there was considerable variance within each group, every woman in the study group had a lower s-25(OH)D than her matched pair. Additionally, the mean s-25(OH)D for all nine study group participants was lower than the mean of the 7 matched study group women, at 36.0 ± 25.5 nmol·L−1. Six of eight study group women had severe vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 30 nmol·L−1) but no comparative group women did. A trend between clothing type and severe vitamin D deficiency was detected (p = 0.06; FET). However, within the subset of participants who had vitamin D levels less than 75 nmol·L−1, a significant negative relationship between sunscreen use and s-25(OH)D was detected through linear regression (p = 0.03).

Bottom Line: The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p= 0.01).Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise.Bone status did not differ between groups (p= 0.9).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. rani.ojah@dal.ca

ABSTRACT
Bone and muscle weakness due to vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim women who reside in sunny, equatorial countries. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in a northern maritime location additionally disadvantages women who wear concealing clothes. A cross-sectional matched pair design was used to compare women who habitually wore concealing clothing with women who dressed according to western norms. Each premenopausal hijab-wearing woman (n = 11) was matched by age, height, weight and skin tone with a western-dressed woman. Subjects were tested by hand grip dynamometry to assess muscular strength and by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus to assess bone status. Nutritional intake was obtained by 24 h recall. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status was determined in seven matched pairs. The hijab group had lower s-25(OH)D than women who wore western clothes (40 ± 28 vs. 81 ± 32 nmol/L, p= 0.01). Grip strength in the right hand was lower in the hijab-wearing women (p = 0.05) but this appeared to be due to less participation in intense exercise. Bone status did not differ between groups (p= 0.9). Dietary intake of vitamin D was lower in the hijab-wearers (316 ± 353 vs. 601 ± 341 IU/day, p= 0.001). This pilot study suggests that women living in a northern maritime location appear to be at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and therefore should consider taking vitamin D supplements.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus