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Topology and hemodynamics of the cortical cerebrovascular system.

Hirsch S, Reichold J, Schneider M, Székely G, Weber B - J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2012)

Bottom Line: In the first part, we present the current knowledge of the vascular anatomy.This is followed by a theory of topology and its application to vascular biology.We then discuss possible interactions between cerebral blood flow and vascular topology, before summarizing the existing body of the literature on quantitative cerebrovascular topology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Vision Laboratory, Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The cerebrovascular system continuously delivers oxygen and energy substrates to the brain, which is one of the organs with the highest basal energy requirement in mammals. Discontinuities in the delivery lead to fatal consequences for the brain tissue. A detailed understanding of the structure of the cerebrovascular system is important for a multitude of (patho-)physiological cerebral processes and many noninvasive functional imaging methods rely on a signal that originates from the vasculature. Furthermore, neurodegenerative diseases often involve the cerebrovascular system and could contribute to neuronal loss. In this review, we focus on the cortical vascular system. In the first part, we present the current knowledge of the vascular anatomy. This is followed by a theory of topology and its application to vascular biology. We then discuss possible interactions between cerebral blood flow and vascular topology, before summarizing the existing body of the literature on quantitative cerebrovascular topology.

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(A) Scanning electron micrograph of a vascular corrosion cast from the monkey visual cortex (primary visual cortex). Arteries are shaded in red and veins are blue. Bar=1 mm. (B) The red box shows the precise location of the imaged area (horizontal schematic section taken from Saleem and Logothetis, 2007).
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fig2: (A) Scanning electron micrograph of a vascular corrosion cast from the monkey visual cortex (primary visual cortex). Arteries are shaded in red and veins are blue. Bar=1 mm. (B) The red box shows the precise location of the imaged area (horizontal schematic section taken from Saleem and Logothetis, 2007).

Mentions: In this section, we describe the gross anatomy of the cortical vasculature, before focusing on the more specific aspects. The most comprehensive and influential work is the one by Duvernoy et al (1981), who described the vascular system of the human cortex in detail. Most of the general aspects are valid not only for the human cortex but also for many of the most widely used experimental animals, such as nonhuman primates (Fonta and Imbert, 2002; Weber et al, 2008) and rodents (Tsai et al, 2009). Figure 2 depicts a coronal section of a corrosion cast of the macaque primary visual cortex. Large vessels are localized on the surface of the brain. The descending and ascending cortical vessels plunge into the cortex in a perpendicular direction. The cortical arteries (red) branch and eventually give rise to a fine capillary network also called the capillary bed. The vascular density is markedly higher in gray than in white matter. However, within the cortex a continuous orderly pattern can be observed with only moderate changes in vascular density. The capillary bed is drained back to the cortical surface by the venous system. Cortical veins (blue) are—analogous to the cortical arteries—oriented orthogonally to the cortical surface.


Topology and hemodynamics of the cortical cerebrovascular system.

Hirsch S, Reichold J, Schneider M, Székely G, Weber B - J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2012)

(A) Scanning electron micrograph of a vascular corrosion cast from the monkey visual cortex (primary visual cortex). Arteries are shaded in red and veins are blue. Bar=1 mm. (B) The red box shows the precise location of the imaged area (horizontal schematic section taken from Saleem and Logothetis, 2007).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367227&req=5

fig2: (A) Scanning electron micrograph of a vascular corrosion cast from the monkey visual cortex (primary visual cortex). Arteries are shaded in red and veins are blue. Bar=1 mm. (B) The red box shows the precise location of the imaged area (horizontal schematic section taken from Saleem and Logothetis, 2007).
Mentions: In this section, we describe the gross anatomy of the cortical vasculature, before focusing on the more specific aspects. The most comprehensive and influential work is the one by Duvernoy et al (1981), who described the vascular system of the human cortex in detail. Most of the general aspects are valid not only for the human cortex but also for many of the most widely used experimental animals, such as nonhuman primates (Fonta and Imbert, 2002; Weber et al, 2008) and rodents (Tsai et al, 2009). Figure 2 depicts a coronal section of a corrosion cast of the macaque primary visual cortex. Large vessels are localized on the surface of the brain. The descending and ascending cortical vessels plunge into the cortex in a perpendicular direction. The cortical arteries (red) branch and eventually give rise to a fine capillary network also called the capillary bed. The vascular density is markedly higher in gray than in white matter. However, within the cortex a continuous orderly pattern can be observed with only moderate changes in vascular density. The capillary bed is drained back to the cortical surface by the venous system. Cortical veins (blue) are—analogous to the cortical arteries—oriented orthogonally to the cortical surface.

Bottom Line: In the first part, we present the current knowledge of the vascular anatomy.This is followed by a theory of topology and its application to vascular biology.We then discuss possible interactions between cerebral blood flow and vascular topology, before summarizing the existing body of the literature on quantitative cerebrovascular topology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Vision Laboratory, Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The cerebrovascular system continuously delivers oxygen and energy substrates to the brain, which is one of the organs with the highest basal energy requirement in mammals. Discontinuities in the delivery lead to fatal consequences for the brain tissue. A detailed understanding of the structure of the cerebrovascular system is important for a multitude of (patho-)physiological cerebral processes and many noninvasive functional imaging methods rely on a signal that originates from the vasculature. Furthermore, neurodegenerative diseases often involve the cerebrovascular system and could contribute to neuronal loss. In this review, we focus on the cortical vascular system. In the first part, we present the current knowledge of the vascular anatomy. This is followed by a theory of topology and its application to vascular biology. We then discuss possible interactions between cerebral blood flow and vascular topology, before summarizing the existing body of the literature on quantitative cerebrovascular topology.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus