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miR-212/132 expression and functions: within and beyond the neuronal compartment.

Wanet A, Tacheny A, Arnould T, Renard P - Nucleic Acids Res. (2012)

Bottom Line: Although their involvement in neuronal functions is the most described, evidences point towards a role of these miRNAs in many other biological processes, including inflammation and immune functions.Incidentally, miR-132 was recently classified as a 'neurimmiR', a class of miRNAs operating within and between the neural and immune compartments.In this review, we propose an outline of the current knowledge about miR-132 and miR-212 functions in neurons and immune cells, by describing the signalling pathways and transcription factors regulating their expression as well as their putative or demonstrated roles and validated mRNA targets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (URBC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
During the last two decades, microRNAs (miRNAs) emerged as critical regulators of gene expression. By modulating the expression of numerous target mRNAs mainly at the post-transcriptional level, these small non-coding RNAs have been involved in most, if not all, biological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. miR-132 and miR-212 are tandem miRNAs whose expression is necessary for the proper development, maturation and function of neurons and whose deregulation is associated with several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies (neurodegenerative diseases resulting from the pathological aggregation of tau protein in the human brain). Although their involvement in neuronal functions is the most described, evidences point towards a role of these miRNAs in many other biological processes, including inflammation and immune functions. Incidentally, miR-132 was recently classified as a 'neurimmiR', a class of miRNAs operating within and between the neural and immune compartments. In this review, we propose an outline of the current knowledge about miR-132 and miR-212 functions in neurons and immune cells, by describing the signalling pathways and transcription factors regulating their expression as well as their putative or demonstrated roles and validated mRNA targets.

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Mature and precursor sequences of miR-132 and miR-212 in human. (a) miR-132 and miR-212 share similar mature sequences; in red are indicated the diverging nucleotides between the two human sequences. (b) miR-132 and miR-212 mature sequences are highly conserved among vertebrates; in red are indicated the nucleotides diverging from the human sequence. (c) Sequences and predicted stem–loop structures of human pre-miR-132 and pre-miR-212. The mature miRNA sequences are indicated in red, the miRNA* sequences are indicated in grey and predicted hydrogen bounds are indicated in blue. This figure was designed using miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org) for miRNAs and pre-miRNAs sequences and the Vienna RNAfold webserver (http://rna.tbi.univie.ac.at/cgi-bin/RNAfold.cgi) for the prediction of the stem–loop structures.
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gks151-F1: Mature and precursor sequences of miR-132 and miR-212 in human. (a) miR-132 and miR-212 share similar mature sequences; in red are indicated the diverging nucleotides between the two human sequences. (b) miR-132 and miR-212 mature sequences are highly conserved among vertebrates; in red are indicated the nucleotides diverging from the human sequence. (c) Sequences and predicted stem–loop structures of human pre-miR-132 and pre-miR-212. The mature miRNA sequences are indicated in red, the miRNA* sequences are indicated in grey and predicted hydrogen bounds are indicated in blue. This figure was designed using miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org) for miRNAs and pre-miRNAs sequences and the Vienna RNAfold webserver (http://rna.tbi.univie.ac.at/cgi-bin/RNAfold.cgi) for the prediction of the stem–loop structures.

Mentions: Almost unknown 5 years ago, miR-132 and miR-212, two miRNAs sharing close sequences highly conserved among vertebrates (Figure 1), have been described in an exponential number of publications during these last years, pointing out the pleiotropic feature of these two miRNAs. Most of what we currently know about their regulation and biological functions emerged from studies performed in the neuronal context. However, several studies have also highlighted their involvement in inflammation and other biological (dys)functions. In this review, we outline the main functions of miR-132 and miR-212 in the neural and immune compartments, through the description of their identified targets in different biological processes as well as the molecular pathways involved in the control of their expression.Figure 1.


miR-212/132 expression and functions: within and beyond the neuronal compartment.

Wanet A, Tacheny A, Arnould T, Renard P - Nucleic Acids Res. (2012)

Mature and precursor sequences of miR-132 and miR-212 in human. (a) miR-132 and miR-212 share similar mature sequences; in red are indicated the diverging nucleotides between the two human sequences. (b) miR-132 and miR-212 mature sequences are highly conserved among vertebrates; in red are indicated the nucleotides diverging from the human sequence. (c) Sequences and predicted stem–loop structures of human pre-miR-132 and pre-miR-212. The mature miRNA sequences are indicated in red, the miRNA* sequences are indicated in grey and predicted hydrogen bounds are indicated in blue. This figure was designed using miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org) for miRNAs and pre-miRNAs sequences and the Vienna RNAfold webserver (http://rna.tbi.univie.ac.at/cgi-bin/RNAfold.cgi) for the prediction of the stem–loop structures.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3367188&req=5

gks151-F1: Mature and precursor sequences of miR-132 and miR-212 in human. (a) miR-132 and miR-212 share similar mature sequences; in red are indicated the diverging nucleotides between the two human sequences. (b) miR-132 and miR-212 mature sequences are highly conserved among vertebrates; in red are indicated the nucleotides diverging from the human sequence. (c) Sequences and predicted stem–loop structures of human pre-miR-132 and pre-miR-212. The mature miRNA sequences are indicated in red, the miRNA* sequences are indicated in grey and predicted hydrogen bounds are indicated in blue. This figure was designed using miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org) for miRNAs and pre-miRNAs sequences and the Vienna RNAfold webserver (http://rna.tbi.univie.ac.at/cgi-bin/RNAfold.cgi) for the prediction of the stem–loop structures.
Mentions: Almost unknown 5 years ago, miR-132 and miR-212, two miRNAs sharing close sequences highly conserved among vertebrates (Figure 1), have been described in an exponential number of publications during these last years, pointing out the pleiotropic feature of these two miRNAs. Most of what we currently know about their regulation and biological functions emerged from studies performed in the neuronal context. However, several studies have also highlighted their involvement in inflammation and other biological (dys)functions. In this review, we outline the main functions of miR-132 and miR-212 in the neural and immune compartments, through the description of their identified targets in different biological processes as well as the molecular pathways involved in the control of their expression.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Although their involvement in neuronal functions is the most described, evidences point towards a role of these miRNAs in many other biological processes, including inflammation and immune functions.Incidentally, miR-132 was recently classified as a 'neurimmiR', a class of miRNAs operating within and between the neural and immune compartments.In this review, we propose an outline of the current knowledge about miR-132 and miR-212 functions in neurons and immune cells, by describing the signalling pathways and transcription factors regulating their expression as well as their putative or demonstrated roles and validated mRNA targets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (URBC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
During the last two decades, microRNAs (miRNAs) emerged as critical regulators of gene expression. By modulating the expression of numerous target mRNAs mainly at the post-transcriptional level, these small non-coding RNAs have been involved in most, if not all, biological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. miR-132 and miR-212 are tandem miRNAs whose expression is necessary for the proper development, maturation and function of neurons and whose deregulation is associated with several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies (neurodegenerative diseases resulting from the pathological aggregation of tau protein in the human brain). Although their involvement in neuronal functions is the most described, evidences point towards a role of these miRNAs in many other biological processes, including inflammation and immune functions. Incidentally, miR-132 was recently classified as a 'neurimmiR', a class of miRNAs operating within and between the neural and immune compartments. In this review, we propose an outline of the current knowledge about miR-132 and miR-212 functions in neurons and immune cells, by describing the signalling pathways and transcription factors regulating their expression as well as their putative or demonstrated roles and validated mRNA targets.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus