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Identifying live bird markets with the potential to act as reservoirs of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus: a survey in northern Viet Nam and Cambodia.

Fournié G, Guitian J, Desvaux S, Mangtani P, Ly S, Cong VC, San S, Dung do H, Holl D, Pfeiffer DU, Vong S, Ghani AC - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices.Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted.These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, United Kingdom. gfournie@rvc.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Wet markets are common in many parts of the world and may promote the emergence, spread and maintenance of livestock pathogens, including zoonoses. A survey was conducted in order to assess the potential of Vietnamese and Cambodian live bird markets (LBMs) to sustain circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1). Thirty Vietnamese and 8 Cambodian LBMs were visited, and structured interviews were conducted with the market managers and 561 Vietnamese and 84 Cambodian traders. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices. As a result of those practices and large poultry surplus (unsold poultry reoffered for sale the following day), some poultry traders were shown to promote conditions favorable for perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 in LBMs. More than 80% of these traders operated in LBMs located in the most densely populated areas, Ha Noi and Phnom Penh. The profiles of sellers operating at a given LBM could be reliably predicted using basic information about the location and type of market. Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted. These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of seller clusters across markets and market groups.For each market group, a barplot (on the left) shows the proportion of its sellers in each cluster, and a plot (on the right) shows the distribution of its markets according to their proportion of sellers in each cluster. Where the number of markets in a group is greater than 5, box plots are shown; otherwise, each market (circle) and the median (line) are presented.
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pone-0037986-g002: Distribution of seller clusters across markets and market groups.For each market group, a barplot (on the left) shows the proportion of its sellers in each cluster, and a plot (on the right) shows the distribution of its markets according to their proportion of sellers in each cluster. Where the number of markets in a group is greater than 5, box plots are shown; otherwise, each market (circle) and the median (line) are presented.

Mentions: Whilst the proportion of Cluster V.2 sellers was high in all market groups, 74% (n = 43) Cluster V.1 sellers were found in Bac Giang markets, 80% (n = 71) Cluster V.3 sellers were in Ha Noi retail and mixed markets and 95% (n = 64) Cluster V.4 sellers were in Ha Noi wholesale markets. All Bac Giang markets were strictly or predominantly populated by Cluster V.1 or V.2 sellers, or both (Fig. 2). Cluster V.3 was the only, or the predominant, seller profile in 13 of the 17 Ha Noi retail and mixed markets. This seller profile was, however, absent in 2 markets located in peri-urban areas, far from the main urban centres. Contrary to other market groups, Ha Noi wholesale markets were highly heterogeneous in terms of seller composition. However, when considering the proportion of poultry traded by each seller profile in each market (Fig. S1), large-scale sellers (Cluster V.4) were predominant in all Ha Noi wholesale markets but 1. The market location was, therefore, a good predictor of the seller composition.


Identifying live bird markets with the potential to act as reservoirs of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus: a survey in northern Viet Nam and Cambodia.

Fournié G, Guitian J, Desvaux S, Mangtani P, Ly S, Cong VC, San S, Dung do H, Holl D, Pfeiffer DU, Vong S, Ghani AC - PLoS ONE (2012)

Distribution of seller clusters across markets and market groups.For each market group, a barplot (on the left) shows the proportion of its sellers in each cluster, and a plot (on the right) shows the distribution of its markets according to their proportion of sellers in each cluster. Where the number of markets in a group is greater than 5, box plots are shown; otherwise, each market (circle) and the median (line) are presented.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3366999&req=5

pone-0037986-g002: Distribution of seller clusters across markets and market groups.For each market group, a barplot (on the left) shows the proportion of its sellers in each cluster, and a plot (on the right) shows the distribution of its markets according to their proportion of sellers in each cluster. Where the number of markets in a group is greater than 5, box plots are shown; otherwise, each market (circle) and the median (line) are presented.
Mentions: Whilst the proportion of Cluster V.2 sellers was high in all market groups, 74% (n = 43) Cluster V.1 sellers were found in Bac Giang markets, 80% (n = 71) Cluster V.3 sellers were in Ha Noi retail and mixed markets and 95% (n = 64) Cluster V.4 sellers were in Ha Noi wholesale markets. All Bac Giang markets were strictly or predominantly populated by Cluster V.1 or V.2 sellers, or both (Fig. 2). Cluster V.3 was the only, or the predominant, seller profile in 13 of the 17 Ha Noi retail and mixed markets. This seller profile was, however, absent in 2 markets located in peri-urban areas, far from the main urban centres. Contrary to other market groups, Ha Noi wholesale markets were highly heterogeneous in terms of seller composition. However, when considering the proportion of poultry traded by each seller profile in each market (Fig. S1), large-scale sellers (Cluster V.4) were predominant in all Ha Noi wholesale markets but 1. The market location was, therefore, a good predictor of the seller composition.

Bottom Line: Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices.Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted.These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, United Kingdom. gfournie@rvc.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Wet markets are common in many parts of the world and may promote the emergence, spread and maintenance of livestock pathogens, including zoonoses. A survey was conducted in order to assess the potential of Vietnamese and Cambodian live bird markets (LBMs) to sustain circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1). Thirty Vietnamese and 8 Cambodian LBMs were visited, and structured interviews were conducted with the market managers and 561 Vietnamese and 84 Cambodian traders. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices. As a result of those practices and large poultry surplus (unsold poultry reoffered for sale the following day), some poultry traders were shown to promote conditions favorable for perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 in LBMs. More than 80% of these traders operated in LBMs located in the most densely populated areas, Ha Noi and Phnom Penh. The profiles of sellers operating at a given LBM could be reliably predicted using basic information about the location and type of market. Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted. These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus