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MEG can map short and long-term changes in brain activity following deep brain stimulation for chronic pain.

Mohseni HR, Smith PP, Parsons CE, Young KS, Hyam JA, Stein A, Stein JF, Green AL, Aziz TZ, Kringelbach ML - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: We found significant changes in activity in pain-related regions including the pre-supplementary motor area, brainstem (periaqueductal gray) and dissociable parts of caudal and rostral ACC.We were also able to demonstrate long-term functional brain changes as a result of continuous DBS over one year, leading to specific changes in the activity in dissociable regions of caudal and rostral ACC.These results broaden our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DBS in the human brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be clinically effective for some forms of treatment-resistant chronic pain, but the precise mechanisms of action are not well understood. Here, we present an analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from a patient with whole-body chronic pain, in order to investigate changes in neural activity induced by DBS for pain relief over both short- and long-term. This patient is one of the few cases treated using DBS of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We demonstrate that a novel method, -beamforming, can be used to localise accurately brain activity despite the artefacts caused by the presence of DBS electrodes and stimulus pulses. The accuracy of our source localisation was verified by correlating the predicted DBS electrode positions with their actual positions. Using this beamforming method, we examined changes in whole-brain activity comparing pain relief achieved with deep brain stimulation (DBS ON) and compared with pain experienced with no stimulation (DBS OFF). We found significant changes in activity in pain-related regions including the pre-supplementary motor area, brainstem (periaqueductal gray) and dissociable parts of caudal and rostral ACC. In particular, when the patient reported experiencing pain, there was increased activity in different regions of ACC compared to when he experienced pain relief. We were also able to demonstrate long-term functional brain changes as a result of continuous DBS over one year, leading to specific changes in the activity in dissociable regions of caudal and rostral ACC. These results broaden our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DBS in the human brain.

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Application of the -beamformer.The figure shows the estimated power of the sources in the mid-sagittal (top) and mid-coronal (bottom) view following the use of A) conventional beamformer and B) -beamformer. The threshold value is 70% of the peak of the power spectrum. As can be seen, the -beamformer has successfully removed the interference outside of the brain. Please note that in order to best depict the sources of brain activity, the  location is approximate and its actual location is in other anatomical planes (not shown).
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pone-0037993-g001: Application of the -beamformer.The figure shows the estimated power of the sources in the mid-sagittal (top) and mid-coronal (bottom) view following the use of A) conventional beamformer and B) -beamformer. The threshold value is 70% of the peak of the power spectrum. As can be seen, the -beamformer has successfully removed the interference outside of the brain. Please note that in order to best depict the sources of brain activity, the location is approximate and its actual location is in other anatomical planes (not shown).

Mentions: Equation (4) from the section on Materials and methods was used to estimate the three-dimensional power spectrum as a measure of neural activity. The results were then thresholded and superimposed on the patient’s anatomical MRI. Figure 1 presents a comparison between results obtained using conventional beamforming (Figure 1A) and -beamforming (Figure 1B).


MEG can map short and long-term changes in brain activity following deep brain stimulation for chronic pain.

Mohseni HR, Smith PP, Parsons CE, Young KS, Hyam JA, Stein A, Stein JF, Green AL, Aziz TZ, Kringelbach ML - PLoS ONE (2012)

Application of the -beamformer.The figure shows the estimated power of the sources in the mid-sagittal (top) and mid-coronal (bottom) view following the use of A) conventional beamformer and B) -beamformer. The threshold value is 70% of the peak of the power spectrum. As can be seen, the -beamformer has successfully removed the interference outside of the brain. Please note that in order to best depict the sources of brain activity, the  location is approximate and its actual location is in other anatomical planes (not shown).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3366994&req=5

pone-0037993-g001: Application of the -beamformer.The figure shows the estimated power of the sources in the mid-sagittal (top) and mid-coronal (bottom) view following the use of A) conventional beamformer and B) -beamformer. The threshold value is 70% of the peak of the power spectrum. As can be seen, the -beamformer has successfully removed the interference outside of the brain. Please note that in order to best depict the sources of brain activity, the location is approximate and its actual location is in other anatomical planes (not shown).
Mentions: Equation (4) from the section on Materials and methods was used to estimate the three-dimensional power spectrum as a measure of neural activity. The results were then thresholded and superimposed on the patient’s anatomical MRI. Figure 1 presents a comparison between results obtained using conventional beamforming (Figure 1A) and -beamforming (Figure 1B).

Bottom Line: We found significant changes in activity in pain-related regions including the pre-supplementary motor area, brainstem (periaqueductal gray) and dissociable parts of caudal and rostral ACC.We were also able to demonstrate long-term functional brain changes as a result of continuous DBS over one year, leading to specific changes in the activity in dissociable regions of caudal and rostral ACC.These results broaden our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DBS in the human brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be clinically effective for some forms of treatment-resistant chronic pain, but the precise mechanisms of action are not well understood. Here, we present an analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from a patient with whole-body chronic pain, in order to investigate changes in neural activity induced by DBS for pain relief over both short- and long-term. This patient is one of the few cases treated using DBS of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We demonstrate that a novel method, -beamforming, can be used to localise accurately brain activity despite the artefacts caused by the presence of DBS electrodes and stimulus pulses. The accuracy of our source localisation was verified by correlating the predicted DBS electrode positions with their actual positions. Using this beamforming method, we examined changes in whole-brain activity comparing pain relief achieved with deep brain stimulation (DBS ON) and compared with pain experienced with no stimulation (DBS OFF). We found significant changes in activity in pain-related regions including the pre-supplementary motor area, brainstem (periaqueductal gray) and dissociable parts of caudal and rostral ACC. In particular, when the patient reported experiencing pain, there was increased activity in different regions of ACC compared to when he experienced pain relief. We were also able to demonstrate long-term functional brain changes as a result of continuous DBS over one year, leading to specific changes in the activity in dissociable regions of caudal and rostral ACC. These results broaden our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DBS in the human brain.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus