Limits...
Decrypting the mitochondrial gene pool of modern Panamanians.

Perego UA, Lancioni H, Tribaldos M, Angerhofer N, Ekins JE, Olivieri A, Woodward SR, Pascale JM, Cooke R, Motta J, Achilli A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: The majority (~83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%).These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians.Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The Isthmus of Panama--the narrow neck of land connecting the northern and southern American landmasses--was an obligatory corridor for the Paleo-Indians as they moved into South America. Archaeological evidence suggests an unbroken link between modern natives and their Paleo-Indian ancestors in some areas of Panama, even if the surviving indigenous groups account for only 12.3% of the total population. To evaluate if modern Panamanians have retained a larger fraction of the native pre-Columbian gene pool in their maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome, DNA samples and historical records were collected from more than 1500 volunteer participants living in the nine provinces and four indigenous territories of the Republic. Due to recent gene-flow, we detected ~14% African mitochondrial lineages, confirming the demographic impact of the Atlantic slave trade and subsequent African immigration into Panama from Caribbean islands, and a small European (~2%) component, indicating only a minor influence of colonialism on the maternal side. The majority (~83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%). These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians. Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama.

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Network of A2af control-region haplotypes from Panama subdivided according to their geographic origin.The mutations on the connecting branches refer to the (revised) Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS) [52]. Markers of different clusters are in colors. Mutations are transitions unless the base change is explicitly indicated. Insertions, deletions and heteroplasmic mutations were excluded, with the notable exception of the 106–111 6 bp deletion. The size of each circle is proportional to the haplotype frequency and geographical origins are indicated by different colors. Coalescence ages of A2af and A2af1 are also reported using the control-region mutation rate reported by Soares et al.[50].
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pone-0038337-g003: Network of A2af control-region haplotypes from Panama subdivided according to their geographic origin.The mutations on the connecting branches refer to the (revised) Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS) [52]. Markers of different clusters are in colors. Mutations are transitions unless the base change is explicitly indicated. Insertions, deletions and heteroplasmic mutations were excluded, with the notable exception of the 106–111 6 bp deletion. The size of each circle is proportional to the haplotype frequency and geographical origins are indicated by different colors. Coalescence ages of A2af and A2af1 are also reported using the control-region mutation rate reported by Soares et al.[50].

Mentions: A total of 198 different A2 haplotypes (comprising 689 mtDNAs) were identified in Panama with the most common (53 mtDNAs) having the following mutational motif: 16111, 16223, 16290, 16319, 16360, 16362, 89, 106–111d, 146, 153, 198, 235, 263, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C, and 522–523d. This and 79 other haplotypes were found to share the motif 64@, 73@, 106–111d, and 16360 (a total of 326 mtDNAs). The deletion of six base pairs (nps 106-111) was reported previously in the Huetars of Costa Rica and several other Chibchan-speaking groups of Central America. The additional control-region mutations detected in these haplotypes allow for a better classification of this particular A2 subclade, here preliminarily named A2af. A phylogenetic analysis of these mitochondrial genomes was performed through a network structure (Figure 3), resulting in four different sub-branches with a large prevalence of a particular one marked by the 89 transition. We employed the recent control-region mutation rate published by Soares et al. [50] to date the entire A2af clade at 23.24±8.96 ka.


Decrypting the mitochondrial gene pool of modern Panamanians.

Perego UA, Lancioni H, Tribaldos M, Angerhofer N, Ekins JE, Olivieri A, Woodward SR, Pascale JM, Cooke R, Motta J, Achilli A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Network of A2af control-region haplotypes from Panama subdivided according to their geographic origin.The mutations on the connecting branches refer to the (revised) Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS) [52]. Markers of different clusters are in colors. Mutations are transitions unless the base change is explicitly indicated. Insertions, deletions and heteroplasmic mutations were excluded, with the notable exception of the 106–111 6 bp deletion. The size of each circle is proportional to the haplotype frequency and geographical origins are indicated by different colors. Coalescence ages of A2af and A2af1 are also reported using the control-region mutation rate reported by Soares et al.[50].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3366925&req=5

pone-0038337-g003: Network of A2af control-region haplotypes from Panama subdivided according to their geographic origin.The mutations on the connecting branches refer to the (revised) Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS) [52]. Markers of different clusters are in colors. Mutations are transitions unless the base change is explicitly indicated. Insertions, deletions and heteroplasmic mutations were excluded, with the notable exception of the 106–111 6 bp deletion. The size of each circle is proportional to the haplotype frequency and geographical origins are indicated by different colors. Coalescence ages of A2af and A2af1 are also reported using the control-region mutation rate reported by Soares et al.[50].
Mentions: A total of 198 different A2 haplotypes (comprising 689 mtDNAs) were identified in Panama with the most common (53 mtDNAs) having the following mutational motif: 16111, 16223, 16290, 16319, 16360, 16362, 89, 106–111d, 146, 153, 198, 235, 263, 309.1C, 309.2C, 315.1C, and 522–523d. This and 79 other haplotypes were found to share the motif 64@, 73@, 106–111d, and 16360 (a total of 326 mtDNAs). The deletion of six base pairs (nps 106-111) was reported previously in the Huetars of Costa Rica and several other Chibchan-speaking groups of Central America. The additional control-region mutations detected in these haplotypes allow for a better classification of this particular A2 subclade, here preliminarily named A2af. A phylogenetic analysis of these mitochondrial genomes was performed through a network structure (Figure 3), resulting in four different sub-branches with a large prevalence of a particular one marked by the 89 transition. We employed the recent control-region mutation rate published by Soares et al. [50] to date the entire A2af clade at 23.24±8.96 ka.

Bottom Line: The majority (~83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%).These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians.Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The Isthmus of Panama--the narrow neck of land connecting the northern and southern American landmasses--was an obligatory corridor for the Paleo-Indians as they moved into South America. Archaeological evidence suggests an unbroken link between modern natives and their Paleo-Indian ancestors in some areas of Panama, even if the surviving indigenous groups account for only 12.3% of the total population. To evaluate if modern Panamanians have retained a larger fraction of the native pre-Columbian gene pool in their maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome, DNA samples and historical records were collected from more than 1500 volunteer participants living in the nine provinces and four indigenous territories of the Republic. Due to recent gene-flow, we detected ~14% African mitochondrial lineages, confirming the demographic impact of the Atlantic slave trade and subsequent African immigration into Panama from Caribbean islands, and a small European (~2%) component, indicating only a minor influence of colonialism on the maternal side. The majority (~83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%). These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians. Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus