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Decrypting the mitochondrial gene pool of modern Panamanians.

Perego UA, Lancioni H, Tribaldos M, Angerhofer N, Ekins JE, Olivieri A, Woodward SR, Pascale JM, Cooke R, Motta J, Achilli A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: The majority (~83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%).These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians.Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The Isthmus of Panama--the narrow neck of land connecting the northern and southern American landmasses--was an obligatory corridor for the Paleo-Indians as they moved into South America. Archaeological evidence suggests an unbroken link between modern natives and their Paleo-Indian ancestors in some areas of Panama, even if the surviving indigenous groups account for only 12.3% of the total population. To evaluate if modern Panamanians have retained a larger fraction of the native pre-Columbian gene pool in their maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome, DNA samples and historical records were collected from more than 1500 volunteer participants living in the nine provinces and four indigenous territories of the Republic. Due to recent gene-flow, we detected ~14% African mitochondrial lineages, confirming the demographic impact of the Atlantic slave trade and subsequent African immigration into Panama from Caribbean islands, and a small European (~2%) component, indicating only a minor influence of colonialism on the maternal side. The majority (~83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%). These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians. Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Distributions in Panama of the 1565 samples analyzed in this paper.Bars show both place of collection and terminal maternal ancestor (TMA) origin. This means the origin of the last known ancestor on the maternal side of the recorded pedigree.
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pone-0038337-g001: Distributions in Panama of the 1565 samples analyzed in this paper.Bars show both place of collection and terminal maternal ancestor (TMA) origin. This means the origin of the last known ancestor on the maternal side of the recorded pedigree.

Mentions: MtDNA profiles for 1565 samples – collected in different Panamanian provinces or Native American comarcas (Figure 1) – were determined by sequencing 1150 base pairs (bps) from nucleotide position (np) 16000 to np 580 (Tables S1 and S2), thus covering the entire control region and including the three hypervariable segments (HVS-I: nps 16024–16383, HVS-II: nps 057-372, and HVS-III: nps 438-576). Excluding gaps and ambiguous sites, 227 polymorphisms and 865 invariable sites were identified in the control-region sequences with a nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.01144. The average number of nucleotide differences (k) between two randomly chosen sequences is 13.118. A total of 375 different haplotypes were observed, with an observed high diversity index (Hd = 0.971). These data confirm the efficacy of the sampling design, where related subjects were avoided. An accurate survey of mutational diagnostic motifs in the control region allowed the classification of mtDNAs into many haplogroups, sub-haplogroups, and paragroups, following the most updated mtDNA phylogeny and nomenclature [39] (Table S1).


Decrypting the mitochondrial gene pool of modern Panamanians.

Perego UA, Lancioni H, Tribaldos M, Angerhofer N, Ekins JE, Olivieri A, Woodward SR, Pascale JM, Cooke R, Motta J, Achilli A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Distributions in Panama of the 1565 samples analyzed in this paper.Bars show both place of collection and terminal maternal ancestor (TMA) origin. This means the origin of the last known ancestor on the maternal side of the recorded pedigree.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3366925&req=5

pone-0038337-g001: Distributions in Panama of the 1565 samples analyzed in this paper.Bars show both place of collection and terminal maternal ancestor (TMA) origin. This means the origin of the last known ancestor on the maternal side of the recorded pedigree.
Mentions: MtDNA profiles for 1565 samples – collected in different Panamanian provinces or Native American comarcas (Figure 1) – were determined by sequencing 1150 base pairs (bps) from nucleotide position (np) 16000 to np 580 (Tables S1 and S2), thus covering the entire control region and including the three hypervariable segments (HVS-I: nps 16024–16383, HVS-II: nps 057-372, and HVS-III: nps 438-576). Excluding gaps and ambiguous sites, 227 polymorphisms and 865 invariable sites were identified in the control-region sequences with a nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.01144. The average number of nucleotide differences (k) between two randomly chosen sequences is 13.118. A total of 375 different haplotypes were observed, with an observed high diversity index (Hd = 0.971). These data confirm the efficacy of the sampling design, where related subjects were avoided. An accurate survey of mutational diagnostic motifs in the control region allowed the classification of mtDNAs into many haplogroups, sub-haplogroups, and paragroups, following the most updated mtDNA phylogeny and nomenclature [39] (Table S1).

Bottom Line: The majority (~83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%).These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians.Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The Isthmus of Panama--the narrow neck of land connecting the northern and southern American landmasses--was an obligatory corridor for the Paleo-Indians as they moved into South America. Archaeological evidence suggests an unbroken link between modern natives and their Paleo-Indian ancestors in some areas of Panama, even if the surviving indigenous groups account for only 12.3% of the total population. To evaluate if modern Panamanians have retained a larger fraction of the native pre-Columbian gene pool in their maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome, DNA samples and historical records were collected from more than 1500 volunteer participants living in the nine provinces and four indigenous territories of the Republic. Due to recent gene-flow, we detected ~14% African mitochondrial lineages, confirming the demographic impact of the Atlantic slave trade and subsequent African immigration into Panama from Caribbean islands, and a small European (~2%) component, indicating only a minor influence of colonialism on the maternal side. The majority (~83%) of Panamanian mtDNAs clustered into native pan-American lineages, mostly represented by haplogroup A2 (51%). These findings reveal an overwhelming native maternal legacy in today's Panama, which is in contrast with the overall concept of personal identity shared by many Panamanians. Moreover, the A2 sub-clades A2ad and A2af (with the previously named 6 bp Huetar deletion), when analyzed at the maximum level of resolution (26 entire mitochondrial genomes), confirm the major role of the Pacific coastal path in the peopling of North, Central and South America, and testify to the antiquity of native mitochondrial genomes in Panama.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus