Limits...
An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study.

Cejka C, Knechtle B, Knechtle P, Rüst CA, Rosemann T - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2012)

Bottom Line: Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001).Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005).An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. beat.knechtle@hispeed.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume.

Methods: In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography.

Results: Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028).

Conclusions: An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.35, p = 0.0023).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3366912&req=5

Figure 2: The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.35, p = 0.0023).

Mentions: Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005), plasma volume increased by 5.3% (11.9) and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Plasma [Na+] increased significantly (p < 0.0001) by 1.2% from 137.0 (2.7) mmol/l to 138.6 (2.67) mmol/l, with a mean difference of 1.6 (3.1) mmol/l. Pre-race, 10 subjects showed plasma [Na+] < 135 mmol/L with values between 131 mmol/L and 134 mmol/L. Post-race, four subjects (5.3%) developed asymptomatic EAH with post-race plasma [Na+] between 132 mmol/L and 134 mmol/L. The lowest post-race plasma [Na+] was 132 mmol/L in these subjects. Pre-race plasma [Na+] in these four subjects was 139 mmol/L. Table 3 summarizes their pre- and post-race values, fluid intake and foot volume changes. Two subjects had both pre-and post-race plasma [Na+] < 135 mmol/L, with a pre-race plasma [Na+] of 133 mmol/l in one subject, and 131 mmol/L in the other subject, respectively. The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (Figure 2) and running speed (Figure 3), respectively.


An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study.

Cejka C, Knechtle B, Knechtle P, Rüst CA, Rosemann T - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2012)

The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.35, p = 0.0023).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3366912&req=5

Figure 2: The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.35, p = 0.0023).
Mentions: Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005), plasma volume increased by 5.3% (11.9) and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Plasma [Na+] increased significantly (p < 0.0001) by 1.2% from 137.0 (2.7) mmol/l to 138.6 (2.67) mmol/l, with a mean difference of 1.6 (3.1) mmol/l. Pre-race, 10 subjects showed plasma [Na+] < 135 mmol/L with values between 131 mmol/L and 134 mmol/L. Post-race, four subjects (5.3%) developed asymptomatic EAH with post-race plasma [Na+] between 132 mmol/L and 134 mmol/L. The lowest post-race plasma [Na+] was 132 mmol/L in these subjects. Pre-race plasma [Na+] in these four subjects was 139 mmol/L. Table 3 summarizes their pre- and post-race values, fluid intake and foot volume changes. Two subjects had both pre-and post-race plasma [Na+] < 135 mmol/L, with a pre-race plasma [Na+] of 133 mmol/l in one subject, and 131 mmol/L in the other subject, respectively. The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (Figure 2) and running speed (Figure 3), respectively.

Bottom Line: Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001).Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005).An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. beat.knechtle@hispeed.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume.

Methods: In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography.

Results: Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028).

Conclusions: An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus