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An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study.

Cejka C, Knechtle B, Knechtle P, Rüst CA, Rosemann T - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2012)

Bottom Line: Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001).Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005).An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. beat.knechtle@hispeed.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume.

Methods: In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography.

Results: Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028).

Conclusions: An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The change in the volume of the right foot was not associated with the age of the subjects (r = 0.01, p = 0.91).
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Figure 10: The change in the volume of the right foot was not associated with the age of the subjects (r = 0.01, p = 0.91).

Mentions: A limitation in our study is the fact that we did not determine total body water as it has been reported in studies investigating changes in total body water during exercise for example through the diluted isotope method [42,43]. This might provide more insight into the hydration status in ultra-marathoners, since we can only assume that total body water was increased in the slower runners leading to peripheral oedemas in these subjects. Furthermore, we did not ask our athletes about wearing compression stockings [47]. Elastic compression stockings can prevent the development of oedema in long-haul flights [48]. It would be interesting to determine in future field-studies, whether compression stockings have an influence on the development of peripheral oedemas in ultra-marathoners. The foot swelling might also be a high protein interstitial space fluid swelling and may be associated with markers of skeletal muscle damage. Leg swelling might also be due to venous insufficiency with a higher prevalence at advanced ages [49]. However, when plotting changes in foot volume versus age, we found no association between changes in foot volume and an increase in age (Figure 10).


An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study.

Cejka C, Knechtle B, Knechtle P, Rüst CA, Rosemann T - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2012)

The change in the volume of the right foot was not associated with the age of the subjects (r = 0.01, p = 0.91).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3366912&req=5

Figure 10: The change in the volume of the right foot was not associated with the age of the subjects (r = 0.01, p = 0.91).
Mentions: A limitation in our study is the fact that we did not determine total body water as it has been reported in studies investigating changes in total body water during exercise for example through the diluted isotope method [42,43]. This might provide more insight into the hydration status in ultra-marathoners, since we can only assume that total body water was increased in the slower runners leading to peripheral oedemas in these subjects. Furthermore, we did not ask our athletes about wearing compression stockings [47]. Elastic compression stockings can prevent the development of oedema in long-haul flights [48]. It would be interesting to determine in future field-studies, whether compression stockings have an influence on the development of peripheral oedemas in ultra-marathoners. The foot swelling might also be a high protein interstitial space fluid swelling and may be associated with markers of skeletal muscle damage. Leg swelling might also be due to venous insufficiency with a higher prevalence at advanced ages [49]. However, when plotting changes in foot volume versus age, we found no association between changes in foot volume and an increase in age (Figure 10).

Bottom Line: Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001).Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005).An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. beat.knechtle@hispeed.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume.

Methods: In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography.

Results: Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028).

Conclusions: An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus