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Methylation profiling of Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene promoters, BZLF1 and BRLF1 in tumors of epithelial, NK- and B-cell origins.

Li L, Su X, Choi GC, Cao Y, Ambinder RF, Tao Q - BMC Cancer (2012)

Bottom Line: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes its latency in EBV-associated malignancies, accompanied by occasionally reactivated lytic cycle.Two immediate-early (IE) genes, BZLF1 and BRLF1, induce the switch from latent to lytic infection.Following azacytidine treatment or combined with trichostatin A (TSA), the expression of BZLF1 and BRLF1 was restored along with concomitant promoter demethylation, which subsequently induced the reactivation of early lytic gene BHRF1 and late lytic gene BLLF1.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir YK Pao Center for Cancer, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes its latency in EBV-associated malignancies, accompanied by occasionally reactivated lytic cycle. Promoter CpG methylation of EBV genome plays an essential role in maintaining viral latency. Two immediate-early (IE) genes, BZLF1 and BRLF1, induce the switch from latent to lytic infection. Studies of methylation-dependent binding of BZLF1 and BRLF1 to EBV promoters have been well reported, but little is known about the methylation status of BZLF1 and BRLF1 promoters (Zp and Rp) in tumor samples.

Methods: We evaluated the methylation profiles of Zp and Rp by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS), as well as BZLF1 and BRLF1 expression by semiquantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in tumors of epithelial, NK- and B-cell origins.

Results: We found that both Zp and Rp were hypermethylated in all studied EBV-positive cell lines and tumors of lymphoid (B- or NK cell) or epithelial origin, while unmethylated Zp and Rp alleles were detected in cell lines expressing BZLF1 and BRLF1. Following azacytidine treatment or combined with trichostatin A (TSA), the expression of BZLF1 and BRLF1 was restored along with concomitant promoter demethylation, which subsequently induced the reactivation of early lytic gene BHRF1 and late lytic gene BLLF1.

Conclusions: Hypermethylation of Zp and Rp mediates the frequent silencing of BZLF1 and BRLF1 in EBV-associated tumors, which could be reactivated by demethylation agent and ultimately initiated the EBV lytic cascade.

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(A, B) The expression of BZLF1, BRLF1, BHRF1 (lytic) and BLLF1 examined by RT-PCR, and methylation of Zp and Rp analyzed by MSP in EBV-positive cell lines. M, methylated; U, unmethylated. (C, D) BGS analyses of Zp and Rp methylation status in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and lymphoid (LCL) cell lines. Circles, CpG sites analyzed; row of circles, an individual promoter allele sequenced; Filled circle, methylated; empty circle, unmethylated. "x" circle, CpG site abolished by sequence variation or undetermined methylation status due to unconverted C in nearby CpN site.
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Figure 2: (A, B) The expression of BZLF1, BRLF1, BHRF1 (lytic) and BLLF1 examined by RT-PCR, and methylation of Zp and Rp analyzed by MSP in EBV-positive cell lines. M, methylated; U, unmethylated. (C, D) BGS analyses of Zp and Rp methylation status in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and lymphoid (LCL) cell lines. Circles, CpG sites analyzed; row of circles, an individual promoter allele sequenced; Filled circle, methylated; empty circle, unmethylated. "x" circle, CpG site abolished by sequence variation or undetermined methylation status due to unconverted C in nearby CpN site.

Mentions: We then examined the expression of BZLF1 and BRLF1 in EBV-positive tumor cell lines. Results showed that BZLF1 and BRLF1 were readily expressed in EBV-positive cell lines (C666-1, YCCEL1, B95-8, and AG876), with expression of early lytic gene BHRF1 and late lytic gene BLLF1 also detected in these cell lines. In addition, weak expression of BRLF1 was detected in Raji cells but without BZLF1 (Figure 2A). SUN719 showed only trace expression of BZLF1, BRLF1 and lytic BHRF1 but weak expression of BLLF1.


Methylation profiling of Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene promoters, BZLF1 and BRLF1 in tumors of epithelial, NK- and B-cell origins.

Li L, Su X, Choi GC, Cao Y, Ambinder RF, Tao Q - BMC Cancer (2012)

(A, B) The expression of BZLF1, BRLF1, BHRF1 (lytic) and BLLF1 examined by RT-PCR, and methylation of Zp and Rp analyzed by MSP in EBV-positive cell lines. M, methylated; U, unmethylated. (C, D) BGS analyses of Zp and Rp methylation status in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and lymphoid (LCL) cell lines. Circles, CpG sites analyzed; row of circles, an individual promoter allele sequenced; Filled circle, methylated; empty circle, unmethylated. "x" circle, CpG site abolished by sequence variation or undetermined methylation status due to unconverted C in nearby CpN site.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3362778&req=5

Figure 2: (A, B) The expression of BZLF1, BRLF1, BHRF1 (lytic) and BLLF1 examined by RT-PCR, and methylation of Zp and Rp analyzed by MSP in EBV-positive cell lines. M, methylated; U, unmethylated. (C, D) BGS analyses of Zp and Rp methylation status in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and lymphoid (LCL) cell lines. Circles, CpG sites analyzed; row of circles, an individual promoter allele sequenced; Filled circle, methylated; empty circle, unmethylated. "x" circle, CpG site abolished by sequence variation or undetermined methylation status due to unconverted C in nearby CpN site.
Mentions: We then examined the expression of BZLF1 and BRLF1 in EBV-positive tumor cell lines. Results showed that BZLF1 and BRLF1 were readily expressed in EBV-positive cell lines (C666-1, YCCEL1, B95-8, and AG876), with expression of early lytic gene BHRF1 and late lytic gene BLLF1 also detected in these cell lines. In addition, weak expression of BRLF1 was detected in Raji cells but without BZLF1 (Figure 2A). SUN719 showed only trace expression of BZLF1, BRLF1 and lytic BHRF1 but weak expression of BLLF1.

Bottom Line: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes its latency in EBV-associated malignancies, accompanied by occasionally reactivated lytic cycle.Two immediate-early (IE) genes, BZLF1 and BRLF1, induce the switch from latent to lytic infection.Following azacytidine treatment or combined with trichostatin A (TSA), the expression of BZLF1 and BRLF1 was restored along with concomitant promoter demethylation, which subsequently induced the reactivation of early lytic gene BHRF1 and late lytic gene BLLF1.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir YK Pao Center for Cancer, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes its latency in EBV-associated malignancies, accompanied by occasionally reactivated lytic cycle. Promoter CpG methylation of EBV genome plays an essential role in maintaining viral latency. Two immediate-early (IE) genes, BZLF1 and BRLF1, induce the switch from latent to lytic infection. Studies of methylation-dependent binding of BZLF1 and BRLF1 to EBV promoters have been well reported, but little is known about the methylation status of BZLF1 and BRLF1 promoters (Zp and Rp) in tumor samples.

Methods: We evaluated the methylation profiles of Zp and Rp by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS), as well as BZLF1 and BRLF1 expression by semiquantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in tumors of epithelial, NK- and B-cell origins.

Results: We found that both Zp and Rp were hypermethylated in all studied EBV-positive cell lines and tumors of lymphoid (B- or NK cell) or epithelial origin, while unmethylated Zp and Rp alleles were detected in cell lines expressing BZLF1 and BRLF1. Following azacytidine treatment or combined with trichostatin A (TSA), the expression of BZLF1 and BRLF1 was restored along with concomitant promoter demethylation, which subsequently induced the reactivation of early lytic gene BHRF1 and late lytic gene BLLF1.

Conclusions: Hypermethylation of Zp and Rp mediates the frequent silencing of BZLF1 and BRLF1 in EBV-associated tumors, which could be reactivated by demethylation agent and ultimately initiated the EBV lytic cascade.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus