Limits...
Prevalence and risk of violence and the physical, mental, and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: systematic review.

Oram S, Stöckl H, Busza J, Howard LM, Zimmerman C - PLoS Med. (2012)

Bottom Line: The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%).Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability.Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section for Women's Mental Health, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. sian.oram@kcl.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people.

Methods and findings: We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%). Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability.

Conclusions: Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Pooled prevalence of HIV infection among trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support services in India and Nepal.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3362635&req=5

pmed-1001224-g002: Pooled prevalence of HIV infection among trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support services in India and Nepal.

Mentions: Data on the prevalence of HIV infection among trafficked women were available only from studies conducted in India and Nepal. Four studies, reporting data from the serological test results recorded in the case files of women receiving post-trafficking support services, estimated that the prevalence of HIV ranged from 22.7% to 45.8% (Table 3) [31]–[34]. The random effects pooled prevalence for these four studies was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%–42.4%) (Figure 2). This estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I2 = 83.7%). A lower prevalence of infection was reported by Sarkar et al. in a survey of trafficked (13.1%) and non-trafficked sex workers (10.1%), which also reported that the odds of infection did not differ significantly between the two groups (Table 3) [20]. Tsutsumi et al.'s report of a zero prevalence of HIV infection among women trafficked for labour exploitation should be treated with caution: infection status was self-reported and 80.0% of women trafficked for labour exploitation reported that they did not know their HIV status [33].


Prevalence and risk of violence and the physical, mental, and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: systematic review.

Oram S, Stöckl H, Busza J, Howard LM, Zimmerman C - PLoS Med. (2012)

Pooled prevalence of HIV infection among trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support services in India and Nepal.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3362635&req=5

pmed-1001224-g002: Pooled prevalence of HIV infection among trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support services in India and Nepal.
Mentions: Data on the prevalence of HIV infection among trafficked women were available only from studies conducted in India and Nepal. Four studies, reporting data from the serological test results recorded in the case files of women receiving post-trafficking support services, estimated that the prevalence of HIV ranged from 22.7% to 45.8% (Table 3) [31]–[34]. The random effects pooled prevalence for these four studies was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%–42.4%) (Figure 2). This estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I2 = 83.7%). A lower prevalence of infection was reported by Sarkar et al. in a survey of trafficked (13.1%) and non-trafficked sex workers (10.1%), which also reported that the odds of infection did not differ significantly between the two groups (Table 3) [20]. Tsutsumi et al.'s report of a zero prevalence of HIV infection among women trafficked for labour exploitation should be treated with caution: infection status was self-reported and 80.0% of women trafficked for labour exploitation reported that they did not know their HIV status [33].

Bottom Line: The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%).Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability.Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section for Women's Mental Health, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. sian.oram@kcl.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people.

Methods and findings: We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%). Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability.

Conclusions: Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus