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Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance.

Lövdén M, Brehmer Y, Li SC, Lindenberger U - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences.We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able.In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9-12, 20-25, and 65-78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

No MeSH data available.


Practice gains. Mean performance (Timed Recall Score) during the practice phase as predicted from the parameter estimates of the intercept, linear slope, and quadratic slope as a function of list number and age group.
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Figure 6: Practice gains. Mean performance (Timed Recall Score) during the practice phase as predicted from the parameter estimates of the intercept, linear slope, and quadratic slope as a function of list number and age group.

Mentions: Next, we examined the means predicted from the estimates of the intercept, linear slope, and quadratic slope of the practice period (see Figure 6). All groups gained in memory performance from practicing. Children had a linear mean gain (μS) of 0.17 (z = 8.31), younger adults gained 0.35 scores (z = 10.32), and older adults gained 0.04 scores (z = 3.70) per practiced list. The omnibus test indicated significant age-group differences, Δχ2 = 52.51, df = 2, p < 0.001. Pairwise comparisons showed that younger adults gained significantly more than children, Δχ2 = 17.37, df = 1, p < 0.001. In turn, children gained more than older adults, Δχ2 = 21.16, df = 1, p < 0.001.


Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance.

Lövdén M, Brehmer Y, Li SC, Lindenberger U - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Practice gains. Mean performance (Timed Recall Score) during the practice phase as predicted from the parameter estimates of the intercept, linear slope, and quadratic slope as a function of list number and age group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351801&req=5

Figure 6: Practice gains. Mean performance (Timed Recall Score) during the practice phase as predicted from the parameter estimates of the intercept, linear slope, and quadratic slope as a function of list number and age group.
Mentions: Next, we examined the means predicted from the estimates of the intercept, linear slope, and quadratic slope of the practice period (see Figure 6). All groups gained in memory performance from practicing. Children had a linear mean gain (μS) of 0.17 (z = 8.31), younger adults gained 0.35 scores (z = 10.32), and older adults gained 0.04 scores (z = 3.70) per practiced list. The omnibus test indicated significant age-group differences, Δχ2 = 52.51, df = 2, p < 0.001. Pairwise comparisons showed that younger adults gained significantly more than children, Δχ2 = 17.37, df = 1, p < 0.001. In turn, children gained more than older adults, Δχ2 = 21.16, df = 1, p < 0.001.

Bottom Line: Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences.We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able.In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9-12, 20-25, and 65-78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

No MeSH data available.