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Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance.

Lövdén M, Brehmer Y, Li SC, Lindenberger U - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences.We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able.In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9-12, 20-25, and 65-78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

No MeSH data available.


Individual baseline performance and gains from instruction. Performance at baseline and post-instruction assessments for each individual in the group of children (A), younger adults (B), and older adults (C). The scores at baseline and post-instruction assessments are unit-weighted composites of the two lists indicating performance at each assessment, respectively. To plot all scores on the positive axis, a constant of 10 has been added to all scores.
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Figure 5: Individual baseline performance and gains from instruction. Performance at baseline and post-instruction assessments for each individual in the group of children (A), younger adults (B), and older adults (C). The scores at baseline and post-instruction assessments are unit-weighted composites of the two lists indicating performance at each assessment, respectively. To plot all scores on the positive axis, a constant of 10 has been added to all scores.

Mentions: Next we addressed the predicted negative correlation between baseline performance and gains from instruction. All variances and standard deviations were significant. Figure 5 displays individual baseline and post-instruction performances (average of the two lists at each assessment) separately for the children (a), younger adults (b), and older adults (c). An inspection of Figure 5 reveals pronounced between-person differences in instruction gains: within age groups, individuals differed in how much they gained in memory performance from mnemonic instruction. Table 3 displays the correlations among baseline memory performance, gains from mnemonic instruction, and the cognitive composites, separately for the three age groups. The most salient finding reported in Table 3 is the strong negative correlations between baseline performance and instruction gain observed in all age groups, indicating that individuals entering the study with low memory performance gained more from instruction than those who entered the study with good memory performance (see also Figure 5). Caution is, however, warranted when interpreting this finding for the group of younger adults because their tendency for a ceiling effect at post-instruction assessment may contribute to the negative correlation. Likewise, correlations between the cognitive composites and instruction gain indicated that Paired-associates performance was negatively related to instruction gain in the two adult groups.


Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance.

Lövdén M, Brehmer Y, Li SC, Lindenberger U - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Individual baseline performance and gains from instruction. Performance at baseline and post-instruction assessments for each individual in the group of children (A), younger adults (B), and older adults (C). The scores at baseline and post-instruction assessments are unit-weighted composites of the two lists indicating performance at each assessment, respectively. To plot all scores on the positive axis, a constant of 10 has been added to all scores.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351801&req=5

Figure 5: Individual baseline performance and gains from instruction. Performance at baseline and post-instruction assessments for each individual in the group of children (A), younger adults (B), and older adults (C). The scores at baseline and post-instruction assessments are unit-weighted composites of the two lists indicating performance at each assessment, respectively. To plot all scores on the positive axis, a constant of 10 has been added to all scores.
Mentions: Next we addressed the predicted negative correlation between baseline performance and gains from instruction. All variances and standard deviations were significant. Figure 5 displays individual baseline and post-instruction performances (average of the two lists at each assessment) separately for the children (a), younger adults (b), and older adults (c). An inspection of Figure 5 reveals pronounced between-person differences in instruction gains: within age groups, individuals differed in how much they gained in memory performance from mnemonic instruction. Table 3 displays the correlations among baseline memory performance, gains from mnemonic instruction, and the cognitive composites, separately for the three age groups. The most salient finding reported in Table 3 is the strong negative correlations between baseline performance and instruction gain observed in all age groups, indicating that individuals entering the study with low memory performance gained more from instruction than those who entered the study with good memory performance (see also Figure 5). Caution is, however, warranted when interpreting this finding for the group of younger adults because their tendency for a ceiling effect at post-instruction assessment may contribute to the negative correlation. Likewise, correlations between the cognitive composites and instruction gain indicated that Paired-associates performance was negatively related to instruction gain in the two adult groups.

Bottom Line: Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences.We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able.In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9-12, 20-25, and 65-78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

No MeSH data available.