Limits...
Ventral and dorsal streams in the evolution of speech and language.

Rauschecker JP - Front Evol Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: This includes the decoding of speech sounds ("speech perception") and their ultimate linking to meaning in humans.The originally presumed role of the auditory dorsal pathway in spatial processing, by analogy to the visual dorsal pathway, has recently been conceptualized into a more general role in sensorimotor integration and control.Specifically for speech, the dorsal processing stream plays a role in speech production as well as categorization of phonemes during on-line processing of speech.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience and Cognition, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
The brains of humans and old-world monkeys show a great deal of anatomical similarity. The auditory cortical system, for instance, is organized into a ventral and a dorsal pathway in both species. A fundamental question with regard to the evolution of speech and language (as well as music) is whether human and monkey brains show principal differences in their organization (e.g., new pathways appearing as a result of a single mutation), or whether species differences are of a more subtle, quantitative nature. There is little doubt about a similar role of the ventral auditory pathway in both humans and monkeys in the decoding of spectrally complex sounds, which some authors have referred to as auditory object recognition. This includes the decoding of speech sounds ("speech perception") and their ultimate linking to meaning in humans. The originally presumed role of the auditory dorsal pathway in spatial processing, by analogy to the visual dorsal pathway, has recently been conceptualized into a more general role in sensorimotor integration and control. Specifically for speech, the dorsal processing stream plays a role in speech production as well as categorization of phonemes during on-line processing of speech.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ventral and dorsal streams for the processing of complex sounds in the primate brain: (A) in the rhesus monkey [modified from Rauschecker and Tian (2000)]; (B) in the human [simplified from Rauschecker and Scott (2009)]. The ventral stream (in green) plays a general role in auditory object recognition, including perception of vocalizations and speech. The dorsal stream (in red) pivots around inferior/posterior parietal cortex, where a quick sketch of sensory event information is compared with an efference copy of motor plans (dashed lines). Thus, the dorsal stream plays a general role in sensorimotor integration and control. In clockwise fashion, starting out from auditory cortex, the processing loop performs as a forward model: object information, such as vocalizations and speech, is decoded in the antero-ventral stream all the way to category-invariant inferior frontal cortex (IFC, or VLPFC in monkeys) and transformed into articulatory representations (DLPFC or ventral PMC). Frontal activations are transmitted to the IPL and pST, where they are compared with auditory and other sensory information. AC, auditory cortex; AL, antero-lateral area; CL, caudo-lateral area; STS, superior temporal sulcus; IFC, inferior frontal cortex; DLPFC, VLPFC, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; PMC, premotor cortex; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; IPS, inferior parietal sulcus; CS, central sulcus; pST, posterior superior temporal region. [Composite figure adapted, with permission, from Rauschecker (2011)]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351753&req=5

Figure 1: Ventral and dorsal streams for the processing of complex sounds in the primate brain: (A) in the rhesus monkey [modified from Rauschecker and Tian (2000)]; (B) in the human [simplified from Rauschecker and Scott (2009)]. The ventral stream (in green) plays a general role in auditory object recognition, including perception of vocalizations and speech. The dorsal stream (in red) pivots around inferior/posterior parietal cortex, where a quick sketch of sensory event information is compared with an efference copy of motor plans (dashed lines). Thus, the dorsal stream plays a general role in sensorimotor integration and control. In clockwise fashion, starting out from auditory cortex, the processing loop performs as a forward model: object information, such as vocalizations and speech, is decoded in the antero-ventral stream all the way to category-invariant inferior frontal cortex (IFC, or VLPFC in monkeys) and transformed into articulatory representations (DLPFC or ventral PMC). Frontal activations are transmitted to the IPL and pST, where they are compared with auditory and other sensory information. AC, auditory cortex; AL, antero-lateral area; CL, caudo-lateral area; STS, superior temporal sulcus; IFC, inferior frontal cortex; DLPFC, VLPFC, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; PMC, premotor cortex; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; IPS, inferior parietal sulcus; CS, central sulcus; pST, posterior superior temporal region. [Composite figure adapted, with permission, from Rauschecker (2011)]

Mentions: Thus, the role of the dorsal stream can be conceptualized into one of sensorimotor integration and control and applies to all kinds of sequential stimuli, even beyond the auditory domain. Specifically for speech, the dorsal processing stream plays a role in speech production as well as categorization of phonemes during on-line processing of speech (Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Rauschecker, 2011; Figure 1). The former role conforms to the classical idea of an “efference copy” or feed-forward model and allows for fast and efficient on-line control of speech production. By contrast, the latter function can be formalized as an inverse model during real-time speech processing, creating the affordances of the speech signal in a Gibsonian sense (Gibson, 1966; Rauschecker, 2005). Both functions require a (direct or indirect) connection between sensory and motor cortical structures of the brain, whereby subcortical structures (e.g., the basal ganglia) provide an additional link setting up transitional probabilities during associative learning of sound sequences.


Ventral and dorsal streams in the evolution of speech and language.

Rauschecker JP - Front Evol Neurosci (2012)

Ventral and dorsal streams for the processing of complex sounds in the primate brain: (A) in the rhesus monkey [modified from Rauschecker and Tian (2000)]; (B) in the human [simplified from Rauschecker and Scott (2009)]. The ventral stream (in green) plays a general role in auditory object recognition, including perception of vocalizations and speech. The dorsal stream (in red) pivots around inferior/posterior parietal cortex, where a quick sketch of sensory event information is compared with an efference copy of motor plans (dashed lines). Thus, the dorsal stream plays a general role in sensorimotor integration and control. In clockwise fashion, starting out from auditory cortex, the processing loop performs as a forward model: object information, such as vocalizations and speech, is decoded in the antero-ventral stream all the way to category-invariant inferior frontal cortex (IFC, or VLPFC in monkeys) and transformed into articulatory representations (DLPFC or ventral PMC). Frontal activations are transmitted to the IPL and pST, where they are compared with auditory and other sensory information. AC, auditory cortex; AL, antero-lateral area; CL, caudo-lateral area; STS, superior temporal sulcus; IFC, inferior frontal cortex; DLPFC, VLPFC, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; PMC, premotor cortex; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; IPS, inferior parietal sulcus; CS, central sulcus; pST, posterior superior temporal region. [Composite figure adapted, with permission, from Rauschecker (2011)]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351753&req=5

Figure 1: Ventral and dorsal streams for the processing of complex sounds in the primate brain: (A) in the rhesus monkey [modified from Rauschecker and Tian (2000)]; (B) in the human [simplified from Rauschecker and Scott (2009)]. The ventral stream (in green) plays a general role in auditory object recognition, including perception of vocalizations and speech. The dorsal stream (in red) pivots around inferior/posterior parietal cortex, where a quick sketch of sensory event information is compared with an efference copy of motor plans (dashed lines). Thus, the dorsal stream plays a general role in sensorimotor integration and control. In clockwise fashion, starting out from auditory cortex, the processing loop performs as a forward model: object information, such as vocalizations and speech, is decoded in the antero-ventral stream all the way to category-invariant inferior frontal cortex (IFC, or VLPFC in monkeys) and transformed into articulatory representations (DLPFC or ventral PMC). Frontal activations are transmitted to the IPL and pST, where they are compared with auditory and other sensory information. AC, auditory cortex; AL, antero-lateral area; CL, caudo-lateral area; STS, superior temporal sulcus; IFC, inferior frontal cortex; DLPFC, VLPFC, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; PMC, premotor cortex; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; IPS, inferior parietal sulcus; CS, central sulcus; pST, posterior superior temporal region. [Composite figure adapted, with permission, from Rauschecker (2011)]
Mentions: Thus, the role of the dorsal stream can be conceptualized into one of sensorimotor integration and control and applies to all kinds of sequential stimuli, even beyond the auditory domain. Specifically for speech, the dorsal processing stream plays a role in speech production as well as categorization of phonemes during on-line processing of speech (Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Rauschecker, 2011; Figure 1). The former role conforms to the classical idea of an “efference copy” or feed-forward model and allows for fast and efficient on-line control of speech production. By contrast, the latter function can be formalized as an inverse model during real-time speech processing, creating the affordances of the speech signal in a Gibsonian sense (Gibson, 1966; Rauschecker, 2005). Both functions require a (direct or indirect) connection between sensory and motor cortical structures of the brain, whereby subcortical structures (e.g., the basal ganglia) provide an additional link setting up transitional probabilities during associative learning of sound sequences.

Bottom Line: This includes the decoding of speech sounds ("speech perception") and their ultimate linking to meaning in humans.The originally presumed role of the auditory dorsal pathway in spatial processing, by analogy to the visual dorsal pathway, has recently been conceptualized into a more general role in sensorimotor integration and control.Specifically for speech, the dorsal processing stream plays a role in speech production as well as categorization of phonemes during on-line processing of speech.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience and Cognition, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
The brains of humans and old-world monkeys show a great deal of anatomical similarity. The auditory cortical system, for instance, is organized into a ventral and a dorsal pathway in both species. A fundamental question with regard to the evolution of speech and language (as well as music) is whether human and monkey brains show principal differences in their organization (e.g., new pathways appearing as a result of a single mutation), or whether species differences are of a more subtle, quantitative nature. There is little doubt about a similar role of the ventral auditory pathway in both humans and monkeys in the decoding of spectrally complex sounds, which some authors have referred to as auditory object recognition. This includes the decoding of speech sounds ("speech perception") and their ultimate linking to meaning in humans. The originally presumed role of the auditory dorsal pathway in spatial processing, by analogy to the visual dorsal pathway, has recently been conceptualized into a more general role in sensorimotor integration and control. Specifically for speech, the dorsal processing stream plays a role in speech production as well as categorization of phonemes during on-line processing of speech.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus