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Genetic and genomic approaches for R-gene mediated disease resistance in tomato: retrospects and prospects.

Ercolano MR, Sanseverino W, Carli P, Ferriello F, Frusciante L - Plant Cell Rep. (2012)

Bottom Line: Patterns of gene activation during disease resistance response, identified through functional approaches, are depicted.Future strategies combining the huge amount of genomic and genetic data will be able to accelerate development of novel resistance varieties sustainably on a worldwide basis.Such strategies are discussed in the context of the latest insights obtained in this field.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Soil, Plant, Environmental and Animal Production Sciences, University of Naples 'Federico II', Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, Italy. ercolano@unina.it

ABSTRACT
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the world's most important vegetable crops. Managing the health of this crop can be particularly challenging; crop resistance may be overcome by new pathogen races while new pathogens have been introduced by global agricultural markets. Tomato is extensively used as a model plant for resistance studies and much has been attained through both genetic and biotechnological approaches. In this paper, we illustrate genomic methods currently employed to preserve resistant germplasm and to facilitate the study and transfer of resistance genes, and we describe the genomic organization of R-genes. Patterns of gene activation during disease resistance response, identified through functional approaches, are depicted. We also describe the opportunities offered by the use of new genomic technologies, including high-throughput DNA sequencing, large-scale expression data production and the comparative hybridization technique, whilst reporting multifaceted approaches to achieve genetic tomato disease control. Future strategies combining the huge amount of genomic and genetic data will be able to accelerate development of novel resistance varieties sustainably on a worldwide basis. Such strategies are discussed in the context of the latest insights obtained in this field.

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Tomato physical map with indication of cloned R-gene localization. The first number in brackets reports the number of functional genes, the second the number of genes in the resistance cluster
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Fig1: Tomato physical map with indication of cloned R-gene localization. The first number in brackets reports the number of functional genes, the second the number of genes in the resistance cluster

Mentions: The tomato genome has been extensively explored with a view to elucidating the structure and organization of resistance loci. In particular, the availability of tomato molecular linkage maps has accelerated the process of disease gene localization. More than 100 loci underlying resistance traits have been mapped (Foolad 2007). By using molecular markers, chromosome walking and linkage analysis, several tomato R-genes were isolated, including PTO, CF5, CF9, MI1-2, I2, ASC, HERO, VE, BS4 and SW5 (Brandwagt et al. 2000; Dixon et al. 1998; Ernst et al. 2002; Kawchuk et al. 2001; Milligan et al. 1998; Ori et al. 1997; Parniske et al. 1997; Schornack et al. 2004). Thanks to the modular structure of plant R-genes it was possible to perform detailed structural analyses. This information was used to shed light on many sequences homologous to genes already isolated in the same species or related species and to isolate new resistance genes. The TM2 gene was cloned by designing PCR primers on the TM2-2 gene sequence obtained by a transposon tagging approach (Lanfermeijer et al. 2003), and many genes of CF series were isolated using the homology-based approach (Dixon et al. 1998; Parniske et al. 1997). Figure 1 reports the physical map based on recently released tomato genome sequences, of cloned resistance genes and of relative clusters in tomato.Fig. 1


Genetic and genomic approaches for R-gene mediated disease resistance in tomato: retrospects and prospects.

Ercolano MR, Sanseverino W, Carli P, Ferriello F, Frusciante L - Plant Cell Rep. (2012)

Tomato physical map with indication of cloned R-gene localization. The first number in brackets reports the number of functional genes, the second the number of genes in the resistance cluster
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351601&req=5

Fig1: Tomato physical map with indication of cloned R-gene localization. The first number in brackets reports the number of functional genes, the second the number of genes in the resistance cluster
Mentions: The tomato genome has been extensively explored with a view to elucidating the structure and organization of resistance loci. In particular, the availability of tomato molecular linkage maps has accelerated the process of disease gene localization. More than 100 loci underlying resistance traits have been mapped (Foolad 2007). By using molecular markers, chromosome walking and linkage analysis, several tomato R-genes were isolated, including PTO, CF5, CF9, MI1-2, I2, ASC, HERO, VE, BS4 and SW5 (Brandwagt et al. 2000; Dixon et al. 1998; Ernst et al. 2002; Kawchuk et al. 2001; Milligan et al. 1998; Ori et al. 1997; Parniske et al. 1997; Schornack et al. 2004). Thanks to the modular structure of plant R-genes it was possible to perform detailed structural analyses. This information was used to shed light on many sequences homologous to genes already isolated in the same species or related species and to isolate new resistance genes. The TM2 gene was cloned by designing PCR primers on the TM2-2 gene sequence obtained by a transposon tagging approach (Lanfermeijer et al. 2003), and many genes of CF series were isolated using the homology-based approach (Dixon et al. 1998; Parniske et al. 1997). Figure 1 reports the physical map based on recently released tomato genome sequences, of cloned resistance genes and of relative clusters in tomato.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Patterns of gene activation during disease resistance response, identified through functional approaches, are depicted.Future strategies combining the huge amount of genomic and genetic data will be able to accelerate development of novel resistance varieties sustainably on a worldwide basis.Such strategies are discussed in the context of the latest insights obtained in this field.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Soil, Plant, Environmental and Animal Production Sciences, University of Naples 'Federico II', Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, Italy. ercolano@unina.it

ABSTRACT
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the world's most important vegetable crops. Managing the health of this crop can be particularly challenging; crop resistance may be overcome by new pathogen races while new pathogens have been introduced by global agricultural markets. Tomato is extensively used as a model plant for resistance studies and much has been attained through both genetic and biotechnological approaches. In this paper, we illustrate genomic methods currently employed to preserve resistant germplasm and to facilitate the study and transfer of resistance genes, and we describe the genomic organization of R-genes. Patterns of gene activation during disease resistance response, identified through functional approaches, are depicted. We also describe the opportunities offered by the use of new genomic technologies, including high-throughput DNA sequencing, large-scale expression data production and the comparative hybridization technique, whilst reporting multifaceted approaches to achieve genetic tomato disease control. Future strategies combining the huge amount of genomic and genetic data will be able to accelerate development of novel resistance varieties sustainably on a worldwide basis. Such strategies are discussed in the context of the latest insights obtained in this field.

Show MeSH