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In vivo effects of traditional Ayurvedic formulations in Drosophila melanogaster model relate with therapeutic applications.

Dwivedi V, Anandan EM, Mony RS, Muraleedharan TS, Valiathan MS, Mutsuddi M, Lakhotia SC - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity.RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity.Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular bases of the effects of different Ayurvedic formulations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their "active" components as is done in most current studies.

Methods: We tested two different categories of formulations, a Rasayana (Amalaki Rasayana or AR, an herbal derivative) and a Bhasma (Rasa-Sindoor or RS, an organo-metallic derivative of mercury), for effects on longevity, development, fecundity, stress-tolerance, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) levels of Drosophila melanogaster using at least 200 larvae or flies for each assay.

Results: A 0.5% (weight/volume) supplement of AR or RS affected life-history and other physiological traits in distinct ways. While the size of salivary glands, hnRNP levels in larval tissues, and thermotolerance of larvae/adult flies improved significantly following feeding either of the two formulations, the median life span and starvation resistance improved only with AR. Feeding on AR or RS supplemented food improved fecundity differently. Feeding of larvae and adults with AR increased the fecundity while the same with RS had opposite effect. On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity. RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity.

Conclusions: The present study with two Ayurvedic formulations reveals formulation-specific effects on several parameters of the fly's life, which seem to generally agree with their recommended human usages in Ayurvedic practices. Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular bases of the effects of different Ayurvedic formulations.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Viability assay of flies reared since embryo hatching on various concentrations of AR or RS supplemented or regular food.The survival curves of flies reared since the 1st instar stage on food supplemented with 1% (green) or 2% AR (light blue) are shown in A, for those grown on food supplemented with 0.125% (light blue) or 0.25% (green) or 0. 5% AR (red) are shown in B; C shows survival curves for those grown on food supplemented with 0.5% red) or 1% green) or 2% RS (light blue). Each of these also shows the survival curve for flies reared in parallel on regular food (Control, dark blue). Survival curves are based on observations on 200 (8 replicates of 25 flies each) adult flies in each set. Although surviving flies were counted on daily basis, the data are presented for 5 day intervals for the sake of convenience. The vertical bar at each data point indicates the ±S.E. of mean % survivors in the 8 replicates. Median life span is estimated as the day till which 50% (horizontal gray line at 50% on Y-axis) of original flies were still surviving.
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pone-0037113-g001: Viability assay of flies reared since embryo hatching on various concentrations of AR or RS supplemented or regular food.The survival curves of flies reared since the 1st instar stage on food supplemented with 1% (green) or 2% AR (light blue) are shown in A, for those grown on food supplemented with 0.125% (light blue) or 0.25% (green) or 0. 5% AR (red) are shown in B; C shows survival curves for those grown on food supplemented with 0.5% red) or 1% green) or 2% RS (light blue). Each of these also shows the survival curve for flies reared in parallel on regular food (Control, dark blue). Survival curves are based on observations on 200 (8 replicates of 25 flies each) adult flies in each set. Although surviving flies were counted on daily basis, the data are presented for 5 day intervals for the sake of convenience. The vertical bar at each data point indicates the ±S.E. of mean % survivors in the 8 replicates. Median life span is estimated as the day till which 50% (horizontal gray line at 50% on Y-axis) of original flies were still surviving.

Mentions: In initial experiments, we fed wild type larvae on food supplemented with 1 or 2% of the AR (complete with honey and Ghee) to see effects on development and life span. While the development was not significantly delayed, the median life span of flies fed on 1 or 2% AR supplemented food since the 1st instar stage was reduced compared to those reared on regular food (Fig. 1A, Table 1). In view of the apparently toxic effects of higher concentrations, we used 0.5%, 0.25% or 0.125% AR supplemented food for the median life span assay. Flies fed, since 1st instar larval stage, on food supplemented with lower concentrations of AR showed a dose-dependent increase in the median life span, with 0.5% AR supplemented food resulting in maximal increase (40.4 days compared to 36 days for flies reared on regular food; Fig. 1B, Table 1). Supplementing fly food with only honey (0.286%) or only Ghee (0.072%) or with honey plus Ghee (0.36% in 1∶0.25 ratio) at dosages equivalent to that in 0.5% AR supplemented food, did not significantly affect the median life span (data not presented). Therefore, in all subsequent experiments, we used 0.5% AR supplemented food.


In vivo effects of traditional Ayurvedic formulations in Drosophila melanogaster model relate with therapeutic applications.

Dwivedi V, Anandan EM, Mony RS, Muraleedharan TS, Valiathan MS, Mutsuddi M, Lakhotia SC - PLoS ONE (2012)

Viability assay of flies reared since embryo hatching on various concentrations of AR or RS supplemented or regular food.The survival curves of flies reared since the 1st instar stage on food supplemented with 1% (green) or 2% AR (light blue) are shown in A, for those grown on food supplemented with 0.125% (light blue) or 0.25% (green) or 0. 5% AR (red) are shown in B; C shows survival curves for those grown on food supplemented with 0.5% red) or 1% green) or 2% RS (light blue). Each of these also shows the survival curve for flies reared in parallel on regular food (Control, dark blue). Survival curves are based on observations on 200 (8 replicates of 25 flies each) adult flies in each set. Although surviving flies were counted on daily basis, the data are presented for 5 day intervals for the sake of convenience. The vertical bar at each data point indicates the ±S.E. of mean % survivors in the 8 replicates. Median life span is estimated as the day till which 50% (horizontal gray line at 50% on Y-axis) of original flies were still surviving.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351451&req=5

pone-0037113-g001: Viability assay of flies reared since embryo hatching on various concentrations of AR or RS supplemented or regular food.The survival curves of flies reared since the 1st instar stage on food supplemented with 1% (green) or 2% AR (light blue) are shown in A, for those grown on food supplemented with 0.125% (light blue) or 0.25% (green) or 0. 5% AR (red) are shown in B; C shows survival curves for those grown on food supplemented with 0.5% red) or 1% green) or 2% RS (light blue). Each of these also shows the survival curve for flies reared in parallel on regular food (Control, dark blue). Survival curves are based on observations on 200 (8 replicates of 25 flies each) adult flies in each set. Although surviving flies were counted on daily basis, the data are presented for 5 day intervals for the sake of convenience. The vertical bar at each data point indicates the ±S.E. of mean % survivors in the 8 replicates. Median life span is estimated as the day till which 50% (horizontal gray line at 50% on Y-axis) of original flies were still surviving.
Mentions: In initial experiments, we fed wild type larvae on food supplemented with 1 or 2% of the AR (complete with honey and Ghee) to see effects on development and life span. While the development was not significantly delayed, the median life span of flies fed on 1 or 2% AR supplemented food since the 1st instar stage was reduced compared to those reared on regular food (Fig. 1A, Table 1). In view of the apparently toxic effects of higher concentrations, we used 0.5%, 0.25% or 0.125% AR supplemented food for the median life span assay. Flies fed, since 1st instar larval stage, on food supplemented with lower concentrations of AR showed a dose-dependent increase in the median life span, with 0.5% AR supplemented food resulting in maximal increase (40.4 days compared to 36 days for flies reared on regular food; Fig. 1B, Table 1). Supplementing fly food with only honey (0.286%) or only Ghee (0.072%) or with honey plus Ghee (0.36% in 1∶0.25 ratio) at dosages equivalent to that in 0.5% AR supplemented food, did not significantly affect the median life span (data not presented). Therefore, in all subsequent experiments, we used 0.5% AR supplemented food.

Bottom Line: On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity.RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity.Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular bases of the effects of different Ayurvedic formulations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their "active" components as is done in most current studies.

Methods: We tested two different categories of formulations, a Rasayana (Amalaki Rasayana or AR, an herbal derivative) and a Bhasma (Rasa-Sindoor or RS, an organo-metallic derivative of mercury), for effects on longevity, development, fecundity, stress-tolerance, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) levels of Drosophila melanogaster using at least 200 larvae or flies for each assay.

Results: A 0.5% (weight/volume) supplement of AR or RS affected life-history and other physiological traits in distinct ways. While the size of salivary glands, hnRNP levels in larval tissues, and thermotolerance of larvae/adult flies improved significantly following feeding either of the two formulations, the median life span and starvation resistance improved only with AR. Feeding on AR or RS supplemented food improved fecundity differently. Feeding of larvae and adults with AR increased the fecundity while the same with RS had opposite effect. On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity. RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity.

Conclusions: The present study with two Ayurvedic formulations reveals formulation-specific effects on several parameters of the fly's life, which seem to generally agree with their recommended human usages in Ayurvedic practices. Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular bases of the effects of different Ayurvedic formulations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus