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Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

Kelley RY, Williams WP, Mylroie JE, Boykin DL, Harper JW, Windham GL, Ankala A, Shan X - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35.A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35.A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted to identify maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

Results: Genome wide gene expression levels with or without A. flavus inoculation were compared in two resistant maize inbred lines (Mp313E and Mp04:86) in contrast to two susceptible maize inbred lines (Va35 and B73) by microarray analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to find genes contributing to the larger variances associated with the resistant or susceptible maize inbred lines. The significance levels of gene expression were determined by using SAS and LIMMA programs. Fifty candidate genes were selected and further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in a time-course study on Mp313E and Va35. Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35. Out of the 31 highly expressed genes, eight were mapped to seven previously identified quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions. A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35. A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E.

Conclusion: Maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility were identified by a combination of microarray analysis, qRT-PCR analysis, and QTL mapping methods. Our findings suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in maize host plant defense systems in response to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. These findings will be important in identification of DNA markers for breeding maize lines resistant to aflatoxin accumulation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

2D plot showing gene expression levels over a period of 21 days after the fungal inoculation.These genes are highly expressed in Va35 than in Mp313E.
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pone-0036892-g006: 2D plot showing gene expression levels over a period of 21 days after the fungal inoculation.These genes are highly expressed in Va35 than in Mp313E.

Mentions: Fifteen genes were found to be significantly expressed more in the susceptible line Va35 than in the resistant line Mp313E (Table 3). The highest expressed genes found in Va35 were AI664980 and BG266083 (Figure 6). AI664980 belongs to the glycine-rich RNA binding protein family (GRBP2) that has RNA binding domains (RBD) commonly found in proteins involved in post-transcriptional gene expression processes. BG266083 encodes alpha-crystallin-type of stress-induced small heat shock proteins (HSP18a). TC234808 and TC223372 were also highly expressed in Va35. TC234808 is in the ribosomal protein L30 family (RPL30). The ribosomal protein L30 has pre-mRNA splicing regulatory activity to its own transcript and plays a key role in the assembling of the ribosomal subunits. TC223372 is a cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CNCR2) that catalyses the lignin pathway. Other highly expressed genes found in Va35 included TC218605, TC226528, and AI065864. TC218605 encodes phytochrome A (PHYA). TC226528 encodes a ureide permease (UPS) that transport and recycle organic nitrogen for nucleotide synthesis. AI065864 belongs to the exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase (EEP) domain superfamily (Figure 6). There is no annotation for TC202886 in the database.


Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

Kelley RY, Williams WP, Mylroie JE, Boykin DL, Harper JW, Windham GL, Ankala A, Shan X - PLoS ONE (2012)

2D plot showing gene expression levels over a period of 21 days after the fungal inoculation.These genes are highly expressed in Va35 than in Mp313E.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351445&req=5

pone-0036892-g006: 2D plot showing gene expression levels over a period of 21 days after the fungal inoculation.These genes are highly expressed in Va35 than in Mp313E.
Mentions: Fifteen genes were found to be significantly expressed more in the susceptible line Va35 than in the resistant line Mp313E (Table 3). The highest expressed genes found in Va35 were AI664980 and BG266083 (Figure 6). AI664980 belongs to the glycine-rich RNA binding protein family (GRBP2) that has RNA binding domains (RBD) commonly found in proteins involved in post-transcriptional gene expression processes. BG266083 encodes alpha-crystallin-type of stress-induced small heat shock proteins (HSP18a). TC234808 and TC223372 were also highly expressed in Va35. TC234808 is in the ribosomal protein L30 family (RPL30). The ribosomal protein L30 has pre-mRNA splicing regulatory activity to its own transcript and plays a key role in the assembling of the ribosomal subunits. TC223372 is a cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CNCR2) that catalyses the lignin pathway. Other highly expressed genes found in Va35 included TC218605, TC226528, and AI065864. TC218605 encodes phytochrome A (PHYA). TC226528 encodes a ureide permease (UPS) that transport and recycle organic nitrogen for nucleotide synthesis. AI065864 belongs to the exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase (EEP) domain superfamily (Figure 6). There is no annotation for TC202886 in the database.

Bottom Line: Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35.A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35.A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted to identify maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

Results: Genome wide gene expression levels with or without A. flavus inoculation were compared in two resistant maize inbred lines (Mp313E and Mp04:86) in contrast to two susceptible maize inbred lines (Va35 and B73) by microarray analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to find genes contributing to the larger variances associated with the resistant or susceptible maize inbred lines. The significance levels of gene expression were determined by using SAS and LIMMA programs. Fifty candidate genes were selected and further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in a time-course study on Mp313E and Va35. Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35. Out of the 31 highly expressed genes, eight were mapped to seven previously identified quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions. A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35. A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E.

Conclusion: Maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility were identified by a combination of microarray analysis, qRT-PCR analysis, and QTL mapping methods. Our findings suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in maize host plant defense systems in response to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. These findings will be important in identification of DNA markers for breeding maize lines resistant to aflatoxin accumulation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus