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Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

Kelley RY, Williams WP, Mylroie JE, Boykin DL, Harper JW, Windham GL, Ankala A, Shan X - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35.A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35.A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted to identify maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

Results: Genome wide gene expression levels with or without A. flavus inoculation were compared in two resistant maize inbred lines (Mp313E and Mp04:86) in contrast to two susceptible maize inbred lines (Va35 and B73) by microarray analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to find genes contributing to the larger variances associated with the resistant or susceptible maize inbred lines. The significance levels of gene expression were determined by using SAS and LIMMA programs. Fifty candidate genes were selected and further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in a time-course study on Mp313E and Va35. Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35. Out of the 31 highly expressed genes, eight were mapped to seven previously identified quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions. A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35. A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E.

Conclusion: Maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility were identified by a combination of microarray analysis, qRT-PCR analysis, and QTL mapping methods. Our findings suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in maize host plant defense systems in response to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. These findings will be important in identification of DNA markers for breeding maize lines resistant to aflatoxin accumulation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

2D plot showing gene expression levels over a period of 21 days after the fungal inoculation.These genes are highly expressed in Mp313E than in Va35.
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pone-0036892-g005: 2D plot showing gene expression levels over a period of 21 days after the fungal inoculation.These genes are highly expressed in Mp313E than in Va35.

Mentions: Sixteen of the 50 candidate genes showed significantly higher expression levels in the resistant maize inbred line Mp313E than in the susceptible line Va35 (Table 3). The gene functions were determined by searching the Genbank and the Maize GDB. Figure 5 is a 2-D plot showing quantitative comparison for some of the significant genes over a period of 21 days after inoculation with the fungus in Mp313E and Va35. TC231674 is the highest expressed found in Mp313E samples. TC231674 encodes a NUP85-like gene that is a part of a sub-complex of the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. The function of NPCs is for the transport of RNA and other macromolecules from nucleus to cytoplasm. TC237311 and BM379345 are second highest in expression. TC237311 encodes the heat shock protein HSP101. This protein acts as a molecular chaperone to disaggregate mis-folded proteins. BM379345 encodes a metallothionein like protein (MTLP) that is involved in the binding and detoxification of heavy metal ions. BE050050 and TC238832 comprise the next level in expression. BE050050 has no annotation available. TC238832 encodes a lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)-like gene. Other highly expressed genes include BM498943, BM078796, and TC207503. BM498943 encodes ethylene responsive protein (ETHRP) that belongs to the universal stress protein family. BM078796 encodes small heat shock protein HSP26. TC207503 encodes a prenylated rab acceptor (PRA1) family protein. Prenylated Rab PRA1 proteins are small transmembrane proteins that regulate vesicle trafficking.


Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

Kelley RY, Williams WP, Mylroie JE, Boykin DL, Harper JW, Windham GL, Ankala A, Shan X - PLoS ONE (2012)

2D plot showing gene expression levels over a period of 21 days after the fungal inoculation.These genes are highly expressed in Mp313E than in Va35.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351445&req=5

pone-0036892-g005: 2D plot showing gene expression levels over a period of 21 days after the fungal inoculation.These genes are highly expressed in Mp313E than in Va35.
Mentions: Sixteen of the 50 candidate genes showed significantly higher expression levels in the resistant maize inbred line Mp313E than in the susceptible line Va35 (Table 3). The gene functions were determined by searching the Genbank and the Maize GDB. Figure 5 is a 2-D plot showing quantitative comparison for some of the significant genes over a period of 21 days after inoculation with the fungus in Mp313E and Va35. TC231674 is the highest expressed found in Mp313E samples. TC231674 encodes a NUP85-like gene that is a part of a sub-complex of the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. The function of NPCs is for the transport of RNA and other macromolecules from nucleus to cytoplasm. TC237311 and BM379345 are second highest in expression. TC237311 encodes the heat shock protein HSP101. This protein acts as a molecular chaperone to disaggregate mis-folded proteins. BM379345 encodes a metallothionein like protein (MTLP) that is involved in the binding and detoxification of heavy metal ions. BE050050 and TC238832 comprise the next level in expression. BE050050 has no annotation available. TC238832 encodes a lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)-like gene. Other highly expressed genes include BM498943, BM078796, and TC207503. BM498943 encodes ethylene responsive protein (ETHRP) that belongs to the universal stress protein family. BM078796 encodes small heat shock protein HSP26. TC207503 encodes a prenylated rab acceptor (PRA1) family protein. Prenylated Rab PRA1 proteins are small transmembrane proteins that regulate vesicle trafficking.

Bottom Line: Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35.A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35.A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted to identify maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

Results: Genome wide gene expression levels with or without A. flavus inoculation were compared in two resistant maize inbred lines (Mp313E and Mp04:86) in contrast to two susceptible maize inbred lines (Va35 and B73) by microarray analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to find genes contributing to the larger variances associated with the resistant or susceptible maize inbred lines. The significance levels of gene expression were determined by using SAS and LIMMA programs. Fifty candidate genes were selected and further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in a time-course study on Mp313E and Va35. Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35. Out of the 31 highly expressed genes, eight were mapped to seven previously identified quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions. A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35. A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E.

Conclusion: Maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility were identified by a combination of microarray analysis, qRT-PCR analysis, and QTL mapping methods. Our findings suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in maize host plant defense systems in response to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. These findings will be important in identification of DNA markers for breeding maize lines resistant to aflatoxin accumulation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus