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Alpine crossroads or origin of genetic diversity? Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric microgastropod species.

Weigand AM, Pfenninger M, Jochum A, Klussmann-Kolb A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages.Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America.We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Phylogeny and Systematics, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany. A.Weigand@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

ABSTRACT
The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa--Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826) (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae)--by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (re)colonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

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Refugia localization reconstruction.Reconstructions for the ancestral region of potentially postglacial expanding (i.e. most widespread) lineages of Carychium minimum (A; CMMOTU1 in green; CMMOTU4 in blue) and C. tridentatum (B; CTMOTU1 in green; CTMOTU5 in blue). The size of circles is proportional to the relative probability score of regional ancestry.
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pone-0037089-g007: Refugia localization reconstruction.Reconstructions for the ancestral region of potentially postglacial expanding (i.e. most widespread) lineages of Carychium minimum (A; CMMOTU1 in green; CMMOTU4 in blue) and C. tridentatum (B; CTMOTU1 in green; CTMOTU5 in blue). The size of circles is proportional to the relative probability score of regional ancestry.

Mentions: The inference of the ancestral locality was conducted for a) the most widely distributed and potentially expanding haplotype lineages of CM (Fig. 4A; CMMOTU1) and CT (Fig. 4B; CTMOTU1 and b) the second most widespread lineage of each taxon providing sufficient occurrence data (CMMOTU4, CTMOTU5). Results of the RLR approach reveal significant relative probability scores (RPS) for three lineages (Fig. 7). For the CMMOTU1 lineage, a pooled locality in the Dinaric Alps (RPSGA+TO: 38.7) and a pooled locality in the region of the Sudetes (RPSBO+RE+SL: 35.9) possess maximal scores. The pooled sample of PL+PO in the Dinaric Alps demonstrates the highest RPS (34.0) for the ancestral locality of CMMOTU4. A West-Alpine pooled locality (LB+LC+LM+LT) demonstrates the maximal RPS (34.3) for CTMOTU1. In the case of CTMOTU5, no clear signal is revealed with four localities showing comparable relative probability scores (RPSBO+CE: 25.7; RPSAU+EP: 23.5; RPSLP: 19.7 and RPSLA+SC: 18.4).


Alpine crossroads or origin of genetic diversity? Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric microgastropod species.

Weigand AM, Pfenninger M, Jochum A, Klussmann-Kolb A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Refugia localization reconstruction.Reconstructions for the ancestral region of potentially postglacial expanding (i.e. most widespread) lineages of Carychium minimum (A; CMMOTU1 in green; CMMOTU4 in blue) and C. tridentatum (B; CTMOTU1 in green; CTMOTU5 in blue). The size of circles is proportional to the relative probability score of regional ancestry.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351404&req=5

pone-0037089-g007: Refugia localization reconstruction.Reconstructions for the ancestral region of potentially postglacial expanding (i.e. most widespread) lineages of Carychium minimum (A; CMMOTU1 in green; CMMOTU4 in blue) and C. tridentatum (B; CTMOTU1 in green; CTMOTU5 in blue). The size of circles is proportional to the relative probability score of regional ancestry.
Mentions: The inference of the ancestral locality was conducted for a) the most widely distributed and potentially expanding haplotype lineages of CM (Fig. 4A; CMMOTU1) and CT (Fig. 4B; CTMOTU1 and b) the second most widespread lineage of each taxon providing sufficient occurrence data (CMMOTU4, CTMOTU5). Results of the RLR approach reveal significant relative probability scores (RPS) for three lineages (Fig. 7). For the CMMOTU1 lineage, a pooled locality in the Dinaric Alps (RPSGA+TO: 38.7) and a pooled locality in the region of the Sudetes (RPSBO+RE+SL: 35.9) possess maximal scores. The pooled sample of PL+PO in the Dinaric Alps demonstrates the highest RPS (34.0) for the ancestral locality of CMMOTU4. A West-Alpine pooled locality (LB+LC+LM+LT) demonstrates the maximal RPS (34.3) for CTMOTU1. In the case of CTMOTU5, no clear signal is revealed with four localities showing comparable relative probability scores (RPSBO+CE: 25.7; RPSAU+EP: 23.5; RPSLP: 19.7 and RPSLA+SC: 18.4).

Bottom Line: Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages.Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America.We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Phylogeny and Systematics, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany. A.Weigand@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

ABSTRACT
The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa--Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826) (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae)--by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (re)colonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus