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Alpine crossroads or origin of genetic diversity? Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric microgastropod species.

Weigand AM, Pfenninger M, Jochum A, Klussmann-Kolb A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages.Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America.We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Phylogeny and Systematics, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany. A.Weigand@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

ABSTRACT
The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa--Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826) (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae)--by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (re)colonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

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Distribution of genetic diversity of Carychium minimum (A) and C. tridentatum (B) in Europe. Genetic diversity is classified into three sections (with π<0.001; 0.001–0.005; >0.005) and indicated by the respective dot.
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pone-0037089-g002: Distribution of genetic diversity of Carychium minimum (A) and C. tridentatum (B) in Europe. Genetic diversity is classified into three sections (with π<0.001; 0.001–0.005; >0.005) and indicated by the respective dot.

Mentions: The COI datasets have a length of 590 homologous base pairs (bp). Total numbers of variable sites are 52 (Carychium minimum, CM) and 39 (Carychium tridentatum, CT). We detected the same number of haplotypes (n = 39) for both taxa (Table 1). All differences between haplotypes result from single nucleotide polymorphisms. Mean genetic (π) and haplotype diversity (H) are both significantly higher in CM (πCM = 0.0105, SD 0.0003; HCM = 0.8351, SD 0.0150) than in CT (πCT = 0.0045, SD 0.0002; HCT = 0.6758, SD 0.0250). The number of haplotypes per locality extends from 1–5 (Table 1). Genetic diversity per locality in CM has maximal values in western/southwestern Germany (localities BH, ER, LG and WE) and in the Dinaric Alps (PL) (Fig. 2). Sampling localities with the highest genetic diversity for CT are located in western Germany (DA, FR1), the Dinaric Alps (LP) and the Alps (LB, LM1). The four (AZ1, IT1, IT2 and PI) and three (AZ1, AZ2 and VR) transatlantic sampling localities of CM and CT (Fig. 1C, D) are represented by a single haplotype each and thus, possess a haplotype and genetic diversity of zero.


Alpine crossroads or origin of genetic diversity? Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric microgastropod species.

Weigand AM, Pfenninger M, Jochum A, Klussmann-Kolb A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Distribution of genetic diversity of Carychium minimum (A) and C. tridentatum (B) in Europe. Genetic diversity is classified into three sections (with π<0.001; 0.001–0.005; >0.005) and indicated by the respective dot.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351404&req=5

pone-0037089-g002: Distribution of genetic diversity of Carychium minimum (A) and C. tridentatum (B) in Europe. Genetic diversity is classified into three sections (with π<0.001; 0.001–0.005; >0.005) and indicated by the respective dot.
Mentions: The COI datasets have a length of 590 homologous base pairs (bp). Total numbers of variable sites are 52 (Carychium minimum, CM) and 39 (Carychium tridentatum, CT). We detected the same number of haplotypes (n = 39) for both taxa (Table 1). All differences between haplotypes result from single nucleotide polymorphisms. Mean genetic (π) and haplotype diversity (H) are both significantly higher in CM (πCM = 0.0105, SD 0.0003; HCM = 0.8351, SD 0.0150) than in CT (πCT = 0.0045, SD 0.0002; HCT = 0.6758, SD 0.0250). The number of haplotypes per locality extends from 1–5 (Table 1). Genetic diversity per locality in CM has maximal values in western/southwestern Germany (localities BH, ER, LG and WE) and in the Dinaric Alps (PL) (Fig. 2). Sampling localities with the highest genetic diversity for CT are located in western Germany (DA, FR1), the Dinaric Alps (LP) and the Alps (LB, LM1). The four (AZ1, IT1, IT2 and PI) and three (AZ1, AZ2 and VR) transatlantic sampling localities of CM and CT (Fig. 1C, D) are represented by a single haplotype each and thus, possess a haplotype and genetic diversity of zero.

Bottom Line: Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages.Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America.We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Phylogeny and Systematics, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany. A.Weigand@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

ABSTRACT
The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa--Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826) (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae)--by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (re)colonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus