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Alpine crossroads or origin of genetic diversity? Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric microgastropod species.

Weigand AM, Pfenninger M, Jochum A, Klussmann-Kolb A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages.Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America.We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Phylogeny and Systematics, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany. A.Weigand@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

ABSTRACT
The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa--Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826) (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae)--by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (re)colonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

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Distribution map of sampling sites.Overview map (A) of sampling sites and detailed depiction of European (B), transatlantic North American (C) and Azorean (D) as well as East European populations (E). Further information can be retrieved from Table 1.
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pone-0037089-g001: Distribution map of sampling sites.Overview map (A) of sampling sites and detailed depiction of European (B), transatlantic North American (C) and Azorean (D) as well as East European populations (E). Further information can be retrieved from Table 1.

Mentions: In total, 742 specimens from 92 sampling localities (Fig. 1, Table 1) of Carychium minimum (CM; 325 specimens, 48 sampling localities) and C. tridentatum (CT; 417 specimens, 66 sampling localities) were sampled during the years 2008–2011 throughout their native European range (Fig. 1B, E) and from disjunct transatlantic sampling localities (Fig. 1C, D). No specific permits were required for the described field studies. We exclusively collected in non-protected areas and the involved Carychium taxa are not treated as endangered. In 24% of all populations, both species occurred in sympatry. On average, 6–7 specimens of a single species were obtained per population (minimum: 1; maximum: 15). Specimens were immediately preserved in 70–99% ethanol after collection. All individuals were identified by an integrative taxonomic approach using the combined investigation of conventional conchological characters for Carychiidae [29] and DNA barcodes [31].


Alpine crossroads or origin of genetic diversity? Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric microgastropod species.

Weigand AM, Pfenninger M, Jochum A, Klussmann-Kolb A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Distribution map of sampling sites.Overview map (A) of sampling sites and detailed depiction of European (B), transatlantic North American (C) and Azorean (D) as well as East European populations (E). Further information can be retrieved from Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351404&req=5

pone-0037089-g001: Distribution map of sampling sites.Overview map (A) of sampling sites and detailed depiction of European (B), transatlantic North American (C) and Azorean (D) as well as East European populations (E). Further information can be retrieved from Table 1.
Mentions: In total, 742 specimens from 92 sampling localities (Fig. 1, Table 1) of Carychium minimum (CM; 325 specimens, 48 sampling localities) and C. tridentatum (CT; 417 specimens, 66 sampling localities) were sampled during the years 2008–2011 throughout their native European range (Fig. 1B, E) and from disjunct transatlantic sampling localities (Fig. 1C, D). No specific permits were required for the described field studies. We exclusively collected in non-protected areas and the involved Carychium taxa are not treated as endangered. In 24% of all populations, both species occurred in sympatry. On average, 6–7 specimens of a single species were obtained per population (minimum: 1; maximum: 15). Specimens were immediately preserved in 70–99% ethanol after collection. All individuals were identified by an integrative taxonomic approach using the combined investigation of conventional conchological characters for Carychiidae [29] and DNA barcodes [31].

Bottom Line: Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages.Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America.We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Phylogeny and Systematics, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany. A.Weigand@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

ABSTRACT
The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa--Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826) (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae)--by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (re)colonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus