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Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae) total extract in Wistar rats.

Mirghazanfari SM, Hosseinzadeh L, Shokoohinia Y, Aslany M, Kamali-Nejad M - Clinics (Sao Paulo) (2012)

Bottom Line: It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects.We found no mortality and no abnormality in clinical signs, body weight, or necropsy findings in any of the animals in the acute study.The results of the subchronic study showed no significant difference in hematological parameters in either sex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Student Scientific Research Center, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Echinophora platyloba DC is a widely used herbal medicine and food seasoning in Iran. It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects. Despite the prevalent use of this plant as a food and medicine, there are no reports on its possible toxic effects. To evaluate the safety of E. platyloba, we tested its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in male and female Wistar rats.

Methods: Rats were orally treated with four different single doses of E. platyloba total extract and screened for signs of toxicity two weeks after administration. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, E. platyloba was administered for 45 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological markers were monitored during the study.

Results: We found no mortality and no abnormality in clinical signs, body weight, or necropsy findings in any of the animals in the acute study. The results of the subchronic study showed no significant difference in hematological parameters in either sex. There was a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase in the female groups. A significant increase in the relative lung weight of female rats was noted at 500 mg/kg. Histopathological examinations revealed intra-alveolar hemorrhage in the male rats (500 mg/kg). In the females, congestion of the alveolar capillaries (at 500 mg/kg) and liver bridging necrosis (at 200 mg/kg) were significantly increased.

Conclusion: The no observed adverse effect level of E. platyloba was determined to be 200 and 50 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in male (A) and female (B) rats body weight with duration of subchronic treatment. Each point represents mean±SEM, n = 5.
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f2-cln_67p497: Changes in male (A) and female (B) rats body weight with duration of subchronic treatment. Each point represents mean±SEM, n = 5.

Mentions: There was no significant difference in body weights between the control and treatment groups (Figures 1 and 2). There was no significant difference between the food consumption of E. platyloba-treated animals and controls. No death was found in any of the groups throughout the experimental period, and no abnormal gross findings were observed in any of the animals. The results of the hematological study are shown in Table 1. No treatment-related changes in hematological parameters were observed during the study period. Biochemical parameter evaluation showed an increase in LDH levels in the 200 and 500 mg/kg female groups (Table 2). No significant differences were observed between the vehicle control and E. platyloba treatment groups in the other biochemical parameters, such as ALT, AST, creatinine, and/or urea. Organ weights measured at necropsy showed increases in the relative lung weights of the 500 mg/kg-treated female rats (Table 3). Histopathological examinations showed intra-alveolar hemorrhage in the male rats (500 mg/kg). In the female rats, congestion of the alveolar capillaries (at 500 mg/kg) and liver bridging necrosis (at 200 mg/kg) were significantly increased compared with the control group. No changes were observed in any of the other parameters evaluated, including alveolar collapse, septal thickness, interstitial infiltrate, intra-alveolar neutrophil counts, alveolar edema, and fatty changes in the lung, hepatocyte regeneration/degeneration, architectural distortion, necrosis, interface hepatitis, portal infiltration, and obstruction/dilatation of the bile duct in the liver. No histological findings in the kidney or heart could be attributed to the E. platyloba treatment.


Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae) total extract in Wistar rats.

Mirghazanfari SM, Hosseinzadeh L, Shokoohinia Y, Aslany M, Kamali-Nejad M - Clinics (Sao Paulo) (2012)

Changes in male (A) and female (B) rats body weight with duration of subchronic treatment. Each point represents mean±SEM, n = 5.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351248&req=5

f2-cln_67p497: Changes in male (A) and female (B) rats body weight with duration of subchronic treatment. Each point represents mean±SEM, n = 5.
Mentions: There was no significant difference in body weights between the control and treatment groups (Figures 1 and 2). There was no significant difference between the food consumption of E. platyloba-treated animals and controls. No death was found in any of the groups throughout the experimental period, and no abnormal gross findings were observed in any of the animals. The results of the hematological study are shown in Table 1. No treatment-related changes in hematological parameters were observed during the study period. Biochemical parameter evaluation showed an increase in LDH levels in the 200 and 500 mg/kg female groups (Table 2). No significant differences were observed between the vehicle control and E. platyloba treatment groups in the other biochemical parameters, such as ALT, AST, creatinine, and/or urea. Organ weights measured at necropsy showed increases in the relative lung weights of the 500 mg/kg-treated female rats (Table 3). Histopathological examinations showed intra-alveolar hemorrhage in the male rats (500 mg/kg). In the female rats, congestion of the alveolar capillaries (at 500 mg/kg) and liver bridging necrosis (at 200 mg/kg) were significantly increased compared with the control group. No changes were observed in any of the other parameters evaluated, including alveolar collapse, septal thickness, interstitial infiltrate, intra-alveolar neutrophil counts, alveolar edema, and fatty changes in the lung, hepatocyte regeneration/degeneration, architectural distortion, necrosis, interface hepatitis, portal infiltration, and obstruction/dilatation of the bile duct in the liver. No histological findings in the kidney or heart could be attributed to the E. platyloba treatment.

Bottom Line: It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects.We found no mortality and no abnormality in clinical signs, body weight, or necropsy findings in any of the animals in the acute study.The results of the subchronic study showed no significant difference in hematological parameters in either sex.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Student Scientific Research Center, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Echinophora platyloba DC is a widely used herbal medicine and food seasoning in Iran. It is claimed to exert antimicrobial, antifungal, and antispasmodic effects. Despite the prevalent use of this plant as a food and medicine, there are no reports on its possible toxic effects. To evaluate the safety of E. platyloba, we tested its acute and sub-chronic toxicity in male and female Wistar rats.

Methods: Rats were orally treated with four different single doses of E. platyloba total extract and screened for signs of toxicity two weeks after administration. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, E. platyloba was administered for 45 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological markers were monitored during the study.

Results: We found no mortality and no abnormality in clinical signs, body weight, or necropsy findings in any of the animals in the acute study. The results of the subchronic study showed no significant difference in hematological parameters in either sex. There was a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase in the female groups. A significant increase in the relative lung weight of female rats was noted at 500 mg/kg. Histopathological examinations revealed intra-alveolar hemorrhage in the male rats (500 mg/kg). In the females, congestion of the alveolar capillaries (at 500 mg/kg) and liver bridging necrosis (at 200 mg/kg) were significantly increased.

Conclusion: The no observed adverse effect level of E. platyloba was determined to be 200 and 50 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus