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Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved.

Sani MH, Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Teh LK, Salleh MZ - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Bottom Line: The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist.Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant (P < 0.05) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception.In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae) has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test) and thermal (hot plate test) models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant (P < 0.05) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Effects of L-arginine, L-NAME, and their combination on MEMC antinociception as assessed by acetic-acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The asterisks denote the significance levels as compared to control, ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. (b) Effects of L-arginine, methyline blue, and their combination on MEMC antinociception as assessed by acetic-acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The asterisks denote the significance levels as compared to control, ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test.
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fig5: (a) Effects of L-arginine, L-NAME, and their combination on MEMC antinociception as assessed by acetic-acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The asterisks denote the significance levels as compared to control, ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. (b) Effects of L-arginine, methyline blue, and their combination on MEMC antinociception as assessed by acetic-acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The asterisks denote the significance levels as compared to control, ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test.

Mentions: Figure 5(a) shows the effect of L-arginine, L-NAME, or their combination on 500 mg/kg antinociception assessed using the abdominal constriction test. L-arginine alone did not affect the acetic acid-induced nociception but significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the MEMC antinociceptive activity. On the other hand, L-NAME alone exerted significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity and maintained the MEMC-induced antinociception as seen when the extract was given alone. L-arginine was also found to completely reverse the L-NAME-induced antinociception but when these compounds were combined and given together with the MEMC, the extract antinociceptive activity was maintained despite significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the percentage of analgesia recorded.


Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved.

Sani MH, Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Teh LK, Salleh MZ - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

(a) Effects of L-arginine, L-NAME, and their combination on MEMC antinociception as assessed by acetic-acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The asterisks denote the significance levels as compared to control, ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. (b) Effects of L-arginine, methyline blue, and their combination on MEMC antinociception as assessed by acetic-acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The asterisks denote the significance levels as compared to control, ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3351243&req=5

fig5: (a) Effects of L-arginine, L-NAME, and their combination on MEMC antinociception as assessed by acetic-acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The asterisks denote the significance levels as compared to control, ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. (b) Effects of L-arginine, methyline blue, and their combination on MEMC antinociception as assessed by acetic-acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The asterisks denote the significance levels as compared to control, ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. ***P < 0.001 by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test.
Mentions: Figure 5(a) shows the effect of L-arginine, L-NAME, or their combination on 500 mg/kg antinociception assessed using the abdominal constriction test. L-arginine alone did not affect the acetic acid-induced nociception but significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the MEMC antinociceptive activity. On the other hand, L-NAME alone exerted significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity and maintained the MEMC-induced antinociception as seen when the extract was given alone. L-arginine was also found to completely reverse the L-NAME-induced antinociception but when these compounds were combined and given together with the MEMC, the extract antinociceptive activity was maintained despite significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the percentage of analgesia recorded.

Bottom Line: The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist.Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant (P < 0.05) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception.In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae) has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test) and thermal (hot plate test) models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant (P < 0.05) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus