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Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB2 Transgene.

Clafshenkel WP, King TL, Kotlarczyk MP, Cline JM, Foster WG, Davis VL, Witt-Enderby PA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits.However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice.A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA.

ABSTRACT
Morinda citrifolia (noni) is reported to have many beneficial properties, including on immune, inflammatory, quality of life, and cancer endpoints, but little is known about its ability to prevent or treat breast cancer. To test its anticancer potential, the effects of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) on mammary carcinogenesis were examined in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits. However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice. Remarkably, its ability to inhibit the growth of this aggressive form of cancer occurred with the mouse equivalent of a recommended dose for humans (<3 oz/day). A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling. Additional studies investigating TNJ-induced tumor growth suppression and modified reproductive responses are needed to characterize its potential as a CAM therapy for women with and without HER2(+) breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TNJ treatment results in more days in the secretory phase of the estrous cycle over a 30-day period and in reduced serum progesterone levels. (a) Effects on estrous cycling were analyzed in virgin, tumor-free MMTV-neu mice over thirty days of treatment with 10% TNJ. The time spent in the proliferative (follicular) phase decreased and increased in the secretory (luteal) phase in females treated with 10% TNJ compared to the control animal over the 30-day period (between ages 2 and 3 months), P = 0.002 by the Mann-Whitney test (n = 10 for each group). Vaginal smears in the morning were used to determine secretory phase stages (diestrus and metestrus) and proliferative phase stages (proestrus and estrus). (b) Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels for control (n = 5) and 10% TNJ-treated females (n = 6) were measured by radioimmunoassay in virgin, tumor-free 3-month-old MMTV-neu mice that were in estrus at necropsy. Serum levels were not significantly different between groups. (c) Serum progesterone (P4) levels for control (n = 7) and 10% TNJ-treated females (n = 8) were measured in the same mice analyzed for 17β-estradiol levels (in estrus). Serum progesterone levels, as analyzed by Student's t-test, were significantly reduced in mice receiving 10% TNJ for 1 month (P = 0.029). (d) For tumor study mice in estrus or in the secretory phase (metestrus and diestrus) at the time of necropsy, uterine wet weight normalized to body weight (Ut wt/BW) was not significantly different for the control and 10% TNJ-treated groups. Control estrus (n = 12) and secretory phase (n = 31); TNJ estrus (n = 15) and secretory phase (n = 20). Mice used for uterine weights in the tumor study were, on average, around 1 year of age and were euthanized for maximum age or tumor size. (e) For the 3-month-old females in the pretumor study, uterine wet weight normalized to body weight (Ut wt/BW) for mice in estrus just prior to necropsy were not significantly different for either treatment group; control (n = 6), TNJ (n = 9). (f) Body weights after euthanasia for young animals treated for 1 month (3-month-old mice, n = 10) or aged mice (n = 58, control; n = 55, TNJ) in the tumor study in TNJ-treated and control groups were significant by 2-way ANOVA for age (P < 0.001), but not treatment. Mean ± SEM are shown; TNJ: Tahitian Noni Juice; *indicates significance, P < 0.05 by Mann Whitney or Student's t-test.
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fig6: TNJ treatment results in more days in the secretory phase of the estrous cycle over a 30-day period and in reduced serum progesterone levels. (a) Effects on estrous cycling were analyzed in virgin, tumor-free MMTV-neu mice over thirty days of treatment with 10% TNJ. The time spent in the proliferative (follicular) phase decreased and increased in the secretory (luteal) phase in females treated with 10% TNJ compared to the control animal over the 30-day period (between ages 2 and 3 months), P = 0.002 by the Mann-Whitney test (n = 10 for each group). Vaginal smears in the morning were used to determine secretory phase stages (diestrus and metestrus) and proliferative phase stages (proestrus and estrus). (b) Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels for control (n = 5) and 10% TNJ-treated females (n = 6) were measured by radioimmunoassay in virgin, tumor-free 3-month-old MMTV-neu mice that were in estrus at necropsy. Serum levels were not significantly different between groups. (c) Serum progesterone (P4) levels for control (n = 7) and 10% TNJ-treated females (n = 8) were measured in the same mice analyzed for 17β-estradiol levels (in estrus). Serum progesterone levels, as analyzed by Student's t-test, were significantly reduced in mice receiving 10% TNJ for 1 month (P = 0.029). (d) For tumor study mice in estrus or in the secretory phase (metestrus and diestrus) at the time of necropsy, uterine wet weight normalized to body weight (Ut wt/BW) was not significantly different for the control and 10% TNJ-treated groups. Control estrus (n = 12) and secretory phase (n = 31); TNJ estrus (n = 15) and secretory phase (n = 20). Mice used for uterine weights in the tumor study were, on average, around 1 year of age and were euthanized for maximum age or tumor size. (e) For the 3-month-old females in the pretumor study, uterine wet weight normalized to body weight (Ut wt/BW) for mice in estrus just prior to necropsy were not significantly different for either treatment group; control (n = 6), TNJ (n = 9). (f) Body weights after euthanasia for young animals treated for 1 month (3-month-old mice, n = 10) or aged mice (n = 58, control; n = 55, TNJ) in the tumor study in TNJ-treated and control groups were significant by 2-way ANOVA for age (P < 0.001), but not treatment. Mean ± SEM are shown; TNJ: Tahitian Noni Juice; *indicates significance, P < 0.05 by Mann Whitney or Student's t-test.

Mentions: The effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) juice on estrous cycling was assessed in MMTV-neu mice treated for thirty days, starting approximately 5 weeks after the onset of puberty. While treatment with 10% TNJ did not result in significant changes in the time spent in estrus (9.3 ± 0.6 days, n = 10 for control and 7.9 ± 3.1 days, n = 10 for TNJ), these mice on average spent approximately one-third of the 30 days in the proliferative phase and two-thirds in the secretory phase of the cycle (Figure 6(a)). In contrast, the control group spent approximately the same number of days in each phase. Alteration in the cycling pattern over the thirty-day period suggests that TNJ treatment may impact the hormonal pathways which regulate the estrous cycle.


Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB2 Transgene.

Clafshenkel WP, King TL, Kotlarczyk MP, Cline JM, Foster WG, Davis VL, Witt-Enderby PA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

TNJ treatment results in more days in the secretory phase of the estrous cycle over a 30-day period and in reduced serum progesterone levels. (a) Effects on estrous cycling were analyzed in virgin, tumor-free MMTV-neu mice over thirty days of treatment with 10% TNJ. The time spent in the proliferative (follicular) phase decreased and increased in the secretory (luteal) phase in females treated with 10% TNJ compared to the control animal over the 30-day period (between ages 2 and 3 months), P = 0.002 by the Mann-Whitney test (n = 10 for each group). Vaginal smears in the morning were used to determine secretory phase stages (diestrus and metestrus) and proliferative phase stages (proestrus and estrus). (b) Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels for control (n = 5) and 10% TNJ-treated females (n = 6) were measured by radioimmunoassay in virgin, tumor-free 3-month-old MMTV-neu mice that were in estrus at necropsy. Serum levels were not significantly different between groups. (c) Serum progesterone (P4) levels for control (n = 7) and 10% TNJ-treated females (n = 8) were measured in the same mice analyzed for 17β-estradiol levels (in estrus). Serum progesterone levels, as analyzed by Student's t-test, were significantly reduced in mice receiving 10% TNJ for 1 month (P = 0.029). (d) For tumor study mice in estrus or in the secretory phase (metestrus and diestrus) at the time of necropsy, uterine wet weight normalized to body weight (Ut wt/BW) was not significantly different for the control and 10% TNJ-treated groups. Control estrus (n = 12) and secretory phase (n = 31); TNJ estrus (n = 15) and secretory phase (n = 20). Mice used for uterine weights in the tumor study were, on average, around 1 year of age and were euthanized for maximum age or tumor size. (e) For the 3-month-old females in the pretumor study, uterine wet weight normalized to body weight (Ut wt/BW) for mice in estrus just prior to necropsy were not significantly different for either treatment group; control (n = 6), TNJ (n = 9). (f) Body weights after euthanasia for young animals treated for 1 month (3-month-old mice, n = 10) or aged mice (n = 58, control; n = 55, TNJ) in the tumor study in TNJ-treated and control groups were significant by 2-way ANOVA for age (P < 0.001), but not treatment. Mean ± SEM are shown; TNJ: Tahitian Noni Juice; *indicates significance, P < 0.05 by Mann Whitney or Student's t-test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig6: TNJ treatment results in more days in the secretory phase of the estrous cycle over a 30-day period and in reduced serum progesterone levels. (a) Effects on estrous cycling were analyzed in virgin, tumor-free MMTV-neu mice over thirty days of treatment with 10% TNJ. The time spent in the proliferative (follicular) phase decreased and increased in the secretory (luteal) phase in females treated with 10% TNJ compared to the control animal over the 30-day period (between ages 2 and 3 months), P = 0.002 by the Mann-Whitney test (n = 10 for each group). Vaginal smears in the morning were used to determine secretory phase stages (diestrus and metestrus) and proliferative phase stages (proestrus and estrus). (b) Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels for control (n = 5) and 10% TNJ-treated females (n = 6) were measured by radioimmunoassay in virgin, tumor-free 3-month-old MMTV-neu mice that were in estrus at necropsy. Serum levels were not significantly different between groups. (c) Serum progesterone (P4) levels for control (n = 7) and 10% TNJ-treated females (n = 8) were measured in the same mice analyzed for 17β-estradiol levels (in estrus). Serum progesterone levels, as analyzed by Student's t-test, were significantly reduced in mice receiving 10% TNJ for 1 month (P = 0.029). (d) For tumor study mice in estrus or in the secretory phase (metestrus and diestrus) at the time of necropsy, uterine wet weight normalized to body weight (Ut wt/BW) was not significantly different for the control and 10% TNJ-treated groups. Control estrus (n = 12) and secretory phase (n = 31); TNJ estrus (n = 15) and secretory phase (n = 20). Mice used for uterine weights in the tumor study were, on average, around 1 year of age and were euthanized for maximum age or tumor size. (e) For the 3-month-old females in the pretumor study, uterine wet weight normalized to body weight (Ut wt/BW) for mice in estrus just prior to necropsy were not significantly different for either treatment group; control (n = 6), TNJ (n = 9). (f) Body weights after euthanasia for young animals treated for 1 month (3-month-old mice, n = 10) or aged mice (n = 58, control; n = 55, TNJ) in the tumor study in TNJ-treated and control groups were significant by 2-way ANOVA for age (P < 0.001), but not treatment. Mean ± SEM are shown; TNJ: Tahitian Noni Juice; *indicates significance, P < 0.05 by Mann Whitney or Student's t-test.
Mentions: The effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) juice on estrous cycling was assessed in MMTV-neu mice treated for thirty days, starting approximately 5 weeks after the onset of puberty. While treatment with 10% TNJ did not result in significant changes in the time spent in estrus (9.3 ± 0.6 days, n = 10 for control and 7.9 ± 3.1 days, n = 10 for TNJ), these mice on average spent approximately one-third of the 30 days in the proliferative phase and two-thirds in the secretory phase of the cycle (Figure 6(a)). In contrast, the control group spent approximately the same number of days in each phase. Alteration in the cycling pattern over the thirty-day period suggests that TNJ treatment may impact the hormonal pathways which regulate the estrous cycle.

Bottom Line: Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits.However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice.A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA.

ABSTRACT
Morinda citrifolia (noni) is reported to have many beneficial properties, including on immune, inflammatory, quality of life, and cancer endpoints, but little is known about its ability to prevent or treat breast cancer. To test its anticancer potential, the effects of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) on mammary carcinogenesis were examined in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits. However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice. Remarkably, its ability to inhibit the growth of this aggressive form of cancer occurred with the mouse equivalent of a recommended dose for humans (<3 oz/day). A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling. Additional studies investigating TNJ-induced tumor growth suppression and modified reproductive responses are needed to characterize its potential as a CAM therapy for women with and without HER2(+) breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus