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Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB2 Transgene.

Clafshenkel WP, King TL, Kotlarczyk MP, Cline JM, Foster WG, Davis VL, Witt-Enderby PA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits.However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice.A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA.

ABSTRACT
Morinda citrifolia (noni) is reported to have many beneficial properties, including on immune, inflammatory, quality of life, and cancer endpoints, but little is known about its ability to prevent or treat breast cancer. To test its anticancer potential, the effects of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) on mammary carcinogenesis were examined in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits. However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice. Remarkably, its ability to inhibit the growth of this aggressive form of cancer occurred with the mouse equivalent of a recommended dose for humans (<3 oz/day). A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling. Additional studies investigating TNJ-induced tumor growth suppression and modified reproductive responses are needed to characterize its potential as a CAM therapy for women with and without HER2(+) breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chronic administration of 10% TNJ affects mammary tumor size, but not tumor development, in female MMTV-neu mice. (a) Survival curves show mammary tumor incidence with age. The percent of tumor-free MMTV-neu females for the control (n = 55) and TNJ-treated (n = 45) groups up to the maximum age of 14 months are not significantly different (Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon test). Black arrow indicates maximal primary mammary tumor incidence at approximately 14 months of age. Control: 72.2%; 10% TNJ: 75.6%. (b) The average weight of the first detected mammary tumor for TNJ-treated mice (n = 30) was found to be significantly reduced (P < 0.010, Mann Whitney test) compared to control mice (n = 30). Only solid tumors that remained separate from other tumors and had time to grow to a maximum volume of at least 800 mm3 were used for the volume and weight calculations. (c) The average, noncystic mammary tumor volume for the first detected tumor in TNJ-treated mice (n = 30) was smaller than for the control group (n = 30), P < 0.038, Mann Whitney test. Tumor volume was measured on 3 dimensions after dissection. (d) To correlate with length of time each tumor had to grow for the first detected mammary tumor, the time between detection and death was determined for the mice in (b) and (c). The same animals were used to evaluate both tumor volume and weight (n = 30 for control and n = 30 for TNJ). No significant difference was detected by the Mann Whitney test. Mean ± SEM are shown; TNJ: Tahitian Noni Juice; *indicates significance, P < 0.05, by the Mann-Whitney test.
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fig1: Chronic administration of 10% TNJ affects mammary tumor size, but not tumor development, in female MMTV-neu mice. (a) Survival curves show mammary tumor incidence with age. The percent of tumor-free MMTV-neu females for the control (n = 55) and TNJ-treated (n = 45) groups up to the maximum age of 14 months are not significantly different (Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon test). Black arrow indicates maximal primary mammary tumor incidence at approximately 14 months of age. Control: 72.2%; 10% TNJ: 75.6%. (b) The average weight of the first detected mammary tumor for TNJ-treated mice (n = 30) was found to be significantly reduced (P < 0.010, Mann Whitney test) compared to control mice (n = 30). Only solid tumors that remained separate from other tumors and had time to grow to a maximum volume of at least 800 mm3 were used for the volume and weight calculations. (c) The average, noncystic mammary tumor volume for the first detected tumor in TNJ-treated mice (n = 30) was smaller than for the control group (n = 30), P < 0.038, Mann Whitney test. Tumor volume was measured on 3 dimensions after dissection. (d) To correlate with length of time each tumor had to grow for the first detected mammary tumor, the time between detection and death was determined for the mice in (b) and (c). The same animals were used to evaluate both tumor volume and weight (n = 30 for control and n = 30 for TNJ). No significant difference was detected by the Mann Whitney test. Mean ± SEM are shown; TNJ: Tahitian Noni Juice; *indicates significance, P < 0.05, by the Mann-Whitney test.

Mentions: Mammary cancer development, growth, and progression to metastatic disease in the MMTV-neu mouse model were assessed in control and 10% TNJ-treated animals until a maximum age of 14 months. The mean age of mammary tumor latency (259.8 ± 10.6 days, n = 39, for control versus 266.1 ± 9.9 days, n = 35, for TNJ-treated animals) and overall mammary tumor incidence (72.2% control, 75.6% TNJ-treated animals) were unaffected by TNJ treatment. Survival curves for the percent tumor-free animals with age did not result in a significant difference between the groups (Figure 1(a)). Mammary tumor multiplicity was also similar between groups with 2.51 ± 0.25 versus 2.89 ± 0.24 mammary tumors per tumor-bearing mouse for the control (n = 43) versus the TNJ-treated group (n = 44), respectively. Thus, no effect of 10% TNJ treatment was observed on mammary tumor development in the MMTV-neu mouse model.


Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB2 Transgene.

Clafshenkel WP, King TL, Kotlarczyk MP, Cline JM, Foster WG, Davis VL, Witt-Enderby PA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Chronic administration of 10% TNJ affects mammary tumor size, but not tumor development, in female MMTV-neu mice. (a) Survival curves show mammary tumor incidence with age. The percent of tumor-free MMTV-neu females for the control (n = 55) and TNJ-treated (n = 45) groups up to the maximum age of 14 months are not significantly different (Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon test). Black arrow indicates maximal primary mammary tumor incidence at approximately 14 months of age. Control: 72.2%; 10% TNJ: 75.6%. (b) The average weight of the first detected mammary tumor for TNJ-treated mice (n = 30) was found to be significantly reduced (P < 0.010, Mann Whitney test) compared to control mice (n = 30). Only solid tumors that remained separate from other tumors and had time to grow to a maximum volume of at least 800 mm3 were used for the volume and weight calculations. (c) The average, noncystic mammary tumor volume for the first detected tumor in TNJ-treated mice (n = 30) was smaller than for the control group (n = 30), P < 0.038, Mann Whitney test. Tumor volume was measured on 3 dimensions after dissection. (d) To correlate with length of time each tumor had to grow for the first detected mammary tumor, the time between detection and death was determined for the mice in (b) and (c). The same animals were used to evaluate both tumor volume and weight (n = 30 for control and n = 30 for TNJ). No significant difference was detected by the Mann Whitney test. Mean ± SEM are shown; TNJ: Tahitian Noni Juice; *indicates significance, P < 0.05, by the Mann-Whitney test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig1: Chronic administration of 10% TNJ affects mammary tumor size, but not tumor development, in female MMTV-neu mice. (a) Survival curves show mammary tumor incidence with age. The percent of tumor-free MMTV-neu females for the control (n = 55) and TNJ-treated (n = 45) groups up to the maximum age of 14 months are not significantly different (Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon test). Black arrow indicates maximal primary mammary tumor incidence at approximately 14 months of age. Control: 72.2%; 10% TNJ: 75.6%. (b) The average weight of the first detected mammary tumor for TNJ-treated mice (n = 30) was found to be significantly reduced (P < 0.010, Mann Whitney test) compared to control mice (n = 30). Only solid tumors that remained separate from other tumors and had time to grow to a maximum volume of at least 800 mm3 were used for the volume and weight calculations. (c) The average, noncystic mammary tumor volume for the first detected tumor in TNJ-treated mice (n = 30) was smaller than for the control group (n = 30), P < 0.038, Mann Whitney test. Tumor volume was measured on 3 dimensions after dissection. (d) To correlate with length of time each tumor had to grow for the first detected mammary tumor, the time between detection and death was determined for the mice in (b) and (c). The same animals were used to evaluate both tumor volume and weight (n = 30 for control and n = 30 for TNJ). No significant difference was detected by the Mann Whitney test. Mean ± SEM are shown; TNJ: Tahitian Noni Juice; *indicates significance, P < 0.05, by the Mann-Whitney test.
Mentions: Mammary cancer development, growth, and progression to metastatic disease in the MMTV-neu mouse model were assessed in control and 10% TNJ-treated animals until a maximum age of 14 months. The mean age of mammary tumor latency (259.8 ± 10.6 days, n = 39, for control versus 266.1 ± 9.9 days, n = 35, for TNJ-treated animals) and overall mammary tumor incidence (72.2% control, 75.6% TNJ-treated animals) were unaffected by TNJ treatment. Survival curves for the percent tumor-free animals with age did not result in a significant difference between the groups (Figure 1(a)). Mammary tumor multiplicity was also similar between groups with 2.51 ± 0.25 versus 2.89 ± 0.24 mammary tumors per tumor-bearing mouse for the control (n = 43) versus the TNJ-treated group (n = 44), respectively. Thus, no effect of 10% TNJ treatment was observed on mammary tumor development in the MMTV-neu mouse model.

Bottom Line: Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits.However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice.A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA.

ABSTRACT
Morinda citrifolia (noni) is reported to have many beneficial properties, including on immune, inflammatory, quality of life, and cancer endpoints, but little is known about its ability to prevent or treat breast cancer. To test its anticancer potential, the effects of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) on mammary carcinogenesis were examined in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits. However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice. Remarkably, its ability to inhibit the growth of this aggressive form of cancer occurred with the mouse equivalent of a recommended dose for humans (<3 oz/day). A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling. Additional studies investigating TNJ-induced tumor growth suppression and modified reproductive responses are needed to characterize its potential as a CAM therapy for women with and without HER2(+) breast cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus