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The nucleolus of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Lee LW, Lee CC, Huang CR, Lo SJ - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2012)

Bottom Line: Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli.This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control.Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan 333, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Nucleolar size and appearance correlate with ribosome biogenesis and cellular activity. The mechanisms underlying changes in nucleolar appearance and regulation of nucleolar size that occur during differentiation and cell cycle progression are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli. This paper details the advantages of using C. elegans to investigate features of the nucleolus during the organism's development by following dynamic changes in fibrillarin (FIB-1) in the cells of early embryos and aged worms. This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control. Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

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Nucleolar localization of the large delta antigen of human hepatitis D virus in human hepatoma cells and in worms. Human hepatoma cells transfected with plasmids expressing GFP::LDAg, (a) visualized by GFP, (b) stained with DNA dye, and (c) the merged picture. (d–i) A transgenic worm carrying a bicistronic vector coexpressing FIB-1::GFP and RFP::LD. A low magnification of worms photographed via (d) the FITC channel to visualize FIB-1::GFP, (e) the rhodamine channel to visualize RFP::LD, and (f) the merged picture. The rectangles in panels (d–f) show four intestinal cells in the same worm. A high magnification of intestinal cells shows (g) FIB-1::GFP, (h) RFP::LD, and (i) the merged picture. Arrows indicate the nucleoli. Note that RFP::LD and FIB-1::GFP are not perfectly colocalized. Scale bars indicate 10 μm.
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fig6: Nucleolar localization of the large delta antigen of human hepatitis D virus in human hepatoma cells and in worms. Human hepatoma cells transfected with plasmids expressing GFP::LDAg, (a) visualized by GFP, (b) stained with DNA dye, and (c) the merged picture. (d–i) A transgenic worm carrying a bicistronic vector coexpressing FIB-1::GFP and RFP::LD. A low magnification of worms photographed via (d) the FITC channel to visualize FIB-1::GFP, (e) the rhodamine channel to visualize RFP::LD, and (f) the merged picture. The rectangles in panels (d–f) show four intestinal cells in the same worm. A high magnification of intestinal cells shows (g) FIB-1::GFP, (h) RFP::LD, and (i) the merged picture. Arrows indicate the nucleoli. Note that RFP::LD and FIB-1::GFP are not perfectly colocalized. Scale bars indicate 10 μm.

Mentions: Human hepatitis D virus (HDV) is the smallest known RNA virus. HDV has a genome of approximately 1700 nucleotides that encodes two antigen isoforms named SDAg and LDAg, for the small and large delta antigens, respectively [53]. SDAg is required for genome replication while the LDAg is used for virion packaging [54]. Both antigens can target the nucleoli of human cells, although they also shuttle to other locations when posttranslationally modified [55–58]. LDAg is detectable at the nucleoli of transfected human hepatoma cells by using GFP as a reporter of gene expression (Figures 6(a)–6(c)). When transgenic worms coexpress FIB-1::GFP and RFP::LD using a bicistronic vector [59], LDAg is localized at the nucleoli of most cells by FIB-1::GFP (Figures 6(d)–6(f)). Interestingly, in the presence of FIB-1::GFP, RFP::LD is found at the perimeter of the nucleolus in intestinal cells (Figures 6(g)–6(i)). The localization of LDAg at the edge of the nucleolus is uncommon in mammalian cells, which implies that worm intestinal cells have different components to those of mammals. These examples indicate that both organisms' nucleolar components recognize LDAg and DAO-5 NoLS.


The nucleolus of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Lee LW, Lee CC, Huang CR, Lo SJ - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2012)

Nucleolar localization of the large delta antigen of human hepatitis D virus in human hepatoma cells and in worms. Human hepatoma cells transfected with plasmids expressing GFP::LDAg, (a) visualized by GFP, (b) stained with DNA dye, and (c) the merged picture. (d–i) A transgenic worm carrying a bicistronic vector coexpressing FIB-1::GFP and RFP::LD. A low magnification of worms photographed via (d) the FITC channel to visualize FIB-1::GFP, (e) the rhodamine channel to visualize RFP::LD, and (f) the merged picture. The rectangles in panels (d–f) show four intestinal cells in the same worm. A high magnification of intestinal cells shows (g) FIB-1::GFP, (h) RFP::LD, and (i) the merged picture. Arrows indicate the nucleoli. Note that RFP::LD and FIB-1::GFP are not perfectly colocalized. Scale bars indicate 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3345250&req=5

fig6: Nucleolar localization of the large delta antigen of human hepatitis D virus in human hepatoma cells and in worms. Human hepatoma cells transfected with plasmids expressing GFP::LDAg, (a) visualized by GFP, (b) stained with DNA dye, and (c) the merged picture. (d–i) A transgenic worm carrying a bicistronic vector coexpressing FIB-1::GFP and RFP::LD. A low magnification of worms photographed via (d) the FITC channel to visualize FIB-1::GFP, (e) the rhodamine channel to visualize RFP::LD, and (f) the merged picture. The rectangles in panels (d–f) show four intestinal cells in the same worm. A high magnification of intestinal cells shows (g) FIB-1::GFP, (h) RFP::LD, and (i) the merged picture. Arrows indicate the nucleoli. Note that RFP::LD and FIB-1::GFP are not perfectly colocalized. Scale bars indicate 10 μm.
Mentions: Human hepatitis D virus (HDV) is the smallest known RNA virus. HDV has a genome of approximately 1700 nucleotides that encodes two antigen isoforms named SDAg and LDAg, for the small and large delta antigens, respectively [53]. SDAg is required for genome replication while the LDAg is used for virion packaging [54]. Both antigens can target the nucleoli of human cells, although they also shuttle to other locations when posttranslationally modified [55–58]. LDAg is detectable at the nucleoli of transfected human hepatoma cells by using GFP as a reporter of gene expression (Figures 6(a)–6(c)). When transgenic worms coexpress FIB-1::GFP and RFP::LD using a bicistronic vector [59], LDAg is localized at the nucleoli of most cells by FIB-1::GFP (Figures 6(d)–6(f)). Interestingly, in the presence of FIB-1::GFP, RFP::LD is found at the perimeter of the nucleolus in intestinal cells (Figures 6(g)–6(i)). The localization of LDAg at the edge of the nucleolus is uncommon in mammalian cells, which implies that worm intestinal cells have different components to those of mammals. These examples indicate that both organisms' nucleolar components recognize LDAg and DAO-5 NoLS.

Bottom Line: Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli.This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control.Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan 333, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Nucleolar size and appearance correlate with ribosome biogenesis and cellular activity. The mechanisms underlying changes in nucleolar appearance and regulation of nucleolar size that occur during differentiation and cell cycle progression are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli. This paper details the advantages of using C. elegans to investigate features of the nucleolus during the organism's development by following dynamic changes in fibrillarin (FIB-1) in the cells of early embryos and aged worms. This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control. Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus