Limits...
The nucleolus of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Lee LW, Lee CC, Huang CR, Lo SJ - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2012)

Bottom Line: Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli.This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control.Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan 333, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Nucleolar size and appearance correlate with ribosome biogenesis and cellular activity. The mechanisms underlying changes in nucleolar appearance and regulation of nucleolar size that occur during differentiation and cell cycle progression are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli. This paper details the advantages of using C. elegans to investigate features of the nucleolus during the organism's development by following dynamic changes in fibrillarin (FIB-1) in the cells of early embryos and aged worms. This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control. Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

FIB-1::GFP dynamic pattern changes during development. (a) An embryo at the 40–50 cell stage, arrowheads indicate strong dots of nucleoli. Faint GFP outlines are the nucleus. (b) Intestinal cells at the larval stage, arrowheads indicate circles that may represent a GC region. (c) Intestinal cells at the young adult stage, arrowheads indicate GFP foci close to the nucleoli. These may be like the Cajal body or perinucleolar compartment (PNC) in human cells. (d) Intestinal cells of an aged worm, arrowheads indicate FIB-1::GFP fragments, possibly a sign that ribosome biogenesis was aberrant in these cells. The scale bar represents 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3345250&req=5

fig4: FIB-1::GFP dynamic pattern changes during development. (a) An embryo at the 40–50 cell stage, arrowheads indicate strong dots of nucleoli. Faint GFP outlines are the nucleus. (b) Intestinal cells at the larval stage, arrowheads indicate circles that may represent a GC region. (c) Intestinal cells at the young adult stage, arrowheads indicate GFP foci close to the nucleoli. These may be like the Cajal body or perinucleolar compartment (PNC) in human cells. (d) Intestinal cells of an aged worm, arrowheads indicate FIB-1::GFP fragments, possibly a sign that ribosome biogenesis was aberrant in these cells. The scale bar represents 10 μm.

Mentions: Transgenic worms expressing FIB-1::GFP also provide a tool to study nucleolar pattern changes during embryogenesis and aging. In the 40–60 embryo cell stage, FIB-1::GFP appears as one or two small bright dots (less than 0.2 μ m diameter) in the nucleolar region, and as a faint distribution in the nucleoplasm (Figure 4(a)). This feature is also present in embryos expressing GFP::NST-1 [22], a nucleolar protein involved in maintenance of worm germ cells. Cell division and nucleogenesis are continuous when the embryo is in the active mitotic stage, and so an electron microscopy investigation is needed to determine if the small diameter foci seen for FIB-1::GFP and GFP::NST-1 represent prenucleolar bodies or small nucleoli.


The nucleolus of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Lee LW, Lee CC, Huang CR, Lo SJ - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2012)

FIB-1::GFP dynamic pattern changes during development. (a) An embryo at the 40–50 cell stage, arrowheads indicate strong dots of nucleoli. Faint GFP outlines are the nucleus. (b) Intestinal cells at the larval stage, arrowheads indicate circles that may represent a GC region. (c) Intestinal cells at the young adult stage, arrowheads indicate GFP foci close to the nucleoli. These may be like the Cajal body or perinucleolar compartment (PNC) in human cells. (d) Intestinal cells of an aged worm, arrowheads indicate FIB-1::GFP fragments, possibly a sign that ribosome biogenesis was aberrant in these cells. The scale bar represents 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3345250&req=5

fig4: FIB-1::GFP dynamic pattern changes during development. (a) An embryo at the 40–50 cell stage, arrowheads indicate strong dots of nucleoli. Faint GFP outlines are the nucleus. (b) Intestinal cells at the larval stage, arrowheads indicate circles that may represent a GC region. (c) Intestinal cells at the young adult stage, arrowheads indicate GFP foci close to the nucleoli. These may be like the Cajal body or perinucleolar compartment (PNC) in human cells. (d) Intestinal cells of an aged worm, arrowheads indicate FIB-1::GFP fragments, possibly a sign that ribosome biogenesis was aberrant in these cells. The scale bar represents 10 μm.
Mentions: Transgenic worms expressing FIB-1::GFP also provide a tool to study nucleolar pattern changes during embryogenesis and aging. In the 40–60 embryo cell stage, FIB-1::GFP appears as one or two small bright dots (less than 0.2 μ m diameter) in the nucleolar region, and as a faint distribution in the nucleoplasm (Figure 4(a)). This feature is also present in embryos expressing GFP::NST-1 [22], a nucleolar protein involved in maintenance of worm germ cells. Cell division and nucleogenesis are continuous when the embryo is in the active mitotic stage, and so an electron microscopy investigation is needed to determine if the small diameter foci seen for FIB-1::GFP and GFP::NST-1 represent prenucleolar bodies or small nucleoli.

Bottom Line: Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli.This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control.Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan 333, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Nucleolar size and appearance correlate with ribosome biogenesis and cellular activity. The mechanisms underlying changes in nucleolar appearance and regulation of nucleolar size that occur during differentiation and cell cycle progression are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli. This paper details the advantages of using C. elegans to investigate features of the nucleolus during the organism's development by following dynamic changes in fibrillarin (FIB-1) in the cells of early embryos and aged worms. This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control. Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus