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The nucleolus of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Lee LW, Lee CC, Huang CR, Lo SJ - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2012)

Bottom Line: Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli.This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control.Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan 333, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Nucleolar size and appearance correlate with ribosome biogenesis and cellular activity. The mechanisms underlying changes in nucleolar appearance and regulation of nucleolar size that occur during differentiation and cell cycle progression are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli. This paper details the advantages of using C. elegans to investigate features of the nucleolus during the organism's development by following dynamic changes in fibrillarin (FIB-1) in the cells of early embryos and aged worms. This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control. Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

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Diagram and Nomarski micrographs of adult worm structures. (a) An illustration of the hermaphrodite adult worm showing the major systems and organs, not in precise proportions. Rectangular boxes indicate parts taken using Nomarski optics as shown in (b) (gonad), (c, d) (tail), and Figure 2 (head region). (b) A section of a gonad arm under the light microscope. Relative positions in the gonad are indicated as distal, loop, and proximal. White arrowheads indicate the nucleoli in the corresponding cells, germ cells, and oocyte. Note that the nucleolus in the -1 oocyte is absent, and that the diameter ratio of nucleolus to nucleus decreases from germ cells to oocytes. The scale bar represents 10 μm; (c, d) the tail section showing hypodermal cell nucleoli (indicated by arrows). N2 is a wild-type worm and Ncl-1 is a mutant with loss of NCL-1 function. Scale bars indicate 10 μm.
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fig1: Diagram and Nomarski micrographs of adult worm structures. (a) An illustration of the hermaphrodite adult worm showing the major systems and organs, not in precise proportions. Rectangular boxes indicate parts taken using Nomarski optics as shown in (b) (gonad), (c, d) (tail), and Figure 2 (head region). (b) A section of a gonad arm under the light microscope. Relative positions in the gonad are indicated as distal, loop, and proximal. White arrowheads indicate the nucleoli in the corresponding cells, germ cells, and oocyte. Note that the nucleolus in the -1 oocyte is absent, and that the diameter ratio of nucleolus to nucleus decreases from germ cells to oocytes. The scale bar represents 10 μm; (c, d) the tail section showing hypodermal cell nucleoli (indicated by arrows). N2 is a wild-type worm and Ncl-1 is a mutant with loss of NCL-1 function. Scale bars indicate 10 μm.

Mentions: Caenorhabditis elegans lives freely in soil. The organism occurs naturally in two sexes; both sexes have five pairs of autosomes [1]. However, hermaphrodites possess one pair of X chromosomes (XX), while males have a single X chromosome (XO). Mature adults are about 1 mm in length and 80 μm in diameter; they contain approximately 1,000 somatic cells comprising the animal's minimal systems, including a hypodermis, muscular system, nervous system, digestive organ, and reproductive organ (Figure 1(a)). The life cycle of C. elegans takes about 3 days to complete at 25°C and comprises an embryonic stage, four larval stages (L1 to L4), and adulthood [2]. Adult hermaphrodites can produce about 300 genetically identical progeny by self-fertilization. Progeny carrying various genetic combinations are obtainable by crossing hermaphrodites and males from two genetically different backgrounds [3].


The nucleolus of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Lee LW, Lee CC, Huang CR, Lo SJ - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2012)

Diagram and Nomarski micrographs of adult worm structures. (a) An illustration of the hermaphrodite adult worm showing the major systems and organs, not in precise proportions. Rectangular boxes indicate parts taken using Nomarski optics as shown in (b) (gonad), (c, d) (tail), and Figure 2 (head region). (b) A section of a gonad arm under the light microscope. Relative positions in the gonad are indicated as distal, loop, and proximal. White arrowheads indicate the nucleoli in the corresponding cells, germ cells, and oocyte. Note that the nucleolus in the -1 oocyte is absent, and that the diameter ratio of nucleolus to nucleus decreases from germ cells to oocytes. The scale bar represents 10 μm; (c, d) the tail section showing hypodermal cell nucleoli (indicated by arrows). N2 is a wild-type worm and Ncl-1 is a mutant with loss of NCL-1 function. Scale bars indicate 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3345250&req=5

fig1: Diagram and Nomarski micrographs of adult worm structures. (a) An illustration of the hermaphrodite adult worm showing the major systems and organs, not in precise proportions. Rectangular boxes indicate parts taken using Nomarski optics as shown in (b) (gonad), (c, d) (tail), and Figure 2 (head region). (b) A section of a gonad arm under the light microscope. Relative positions in the gonad are indicated as distal, loop, and proximal. White arrowheads indicate the nucleoli in the corresponding cells, germ cells, and oocyte. Note that the nucleolus in the -1 oocyte is absent, and that the diameter ratio of nucleolus to nucleus decreases from germ cells to oocytes. The scale bar represents 10 μm; (c, d) the tail section showing hypodermal cell nucleoli (indicated by arrows). N2 is a wild-type worm and Ncl-1 is a mutant with loss of NCL-1 function. Scale bars indicate 10 μm.
Mentions: Caenorhabditis elegans lives freely in soil. The organism occurs naturally in two sexes; both sexes have five pairs of autosomes [1]. However, hermaphrodites possess one pair of X chromosomes (XX), while males have a single X chromosome (XO). Mature adults are about 1 mm in length and 80 μm in diameter; they contain approximately 1,000 somatic cells comprising the animal's minimal systems, including a hypodermis, muscular system, nervous system, digestive organ, and reproductive organ (Figure 1(a)). The life cycle of C. elegans takes about 3 days to complete at 25°C and comprises an embryonic stage, four larval stages (L1 to L4), and adulthood [2]. Adult hermaphrodites can produce about 300 genetically identical progeny by self-fertilization. Progeny carrying various genetic combinations are obtainable by crossing hermaphrodites and males from two genetically different backgrounds [3].

Bottom Line: Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli.This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control.Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan 333, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Nucleolar size and appearance correlate with ribosome biogenesis and cellular activity. The mechanisms underlying changes in nucleolar appearance and regulation of nucleolar size that occur during differentiation and cell cycle progression are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans provides a good model for studying these processes because of its small size and transparent body, well-characterized cell types and lineages, and because its cells display various sizes of nucleoli. This paper details the advantages of using C. elegans to investigate features of the nucleolus during the organism's development by following dynamic changes in fibrillarin (FIB-1) in the cells of early embryos and aged worms. This paper also illustrates the involvement of the ncl-1 gene and other possible candidate genes in nucleolar-size control. Lastly, we summarize the ribosomal proteins involved in life span and innate immunity, and those homologous genes that correspond to human disorders of ribosomopathy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus