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Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo.

Liao JC, Deng JS, Chiu CS, Hou WC, Huang SS, Shie PH, Huang GJ - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly.Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE(2) levels on the serum level after Carr injection.These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE(2) levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Cells were incubated for 24 h with 100 ng/mL of LPS in the absence or the presence of samples (50 μM). Samples were added 1 h before incubation with LPS. Lysed cells were then prepared and subjected to western blotting using an antibody specific for iNOS and COX-2. β-actin was used as an internal control. (a) A representative western blot from two separate experiments is shown. (b) Relative iNOS and COX-2 protein levels were calculated with reference to an LPS-stimulated culture. ###compared with sample of control group. The data were presented as mean ± S.D. for three different experiments performed in triplicate. *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001 were compared with LPS-alone group.
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fig3: Inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Cells were incubated for 24 h with 100 ng/mL of LPS in the absence or the presence of samples (50 μM). Samples were added 1 h before incubation with LPS. Lysed cells were then prepared and subjected to western blotting using an antibody specific for iNOS and COX-2. β-actin was used as an internal control. (a) A representative western blot from two separate experiments is shown. (b) Relative iNOS and COX-2 protein levels were calculated with reference to an LPS-stimulated culture. ###compared with sample of control group. The data were presented as mean ± S.D. for three different experiments performed in triplicate. *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001 were compared with LPS-alone group.

Mentions: In order to investigate whether the inhibition of NO production was due to a decreased iNOS, COX-2, IκBα, and NF-κB protein level, the effect of cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin was studied by immunoblot. The results showed the incubation with cinnamic aldehyde (50 μM) in the presence of LPS (100 ng/mL) for 24 h or 1 h inhibited iNOS, COX-2, IκBα, and NF-κB proteins expression in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells in the cytosol (Figures 3(a) and 4(a)). The detection of β-actin was also performed in the same blot as an internal control. The intensity of protein bands was analyzed by using Kodak Quantity software in three independent experiments and it showed an average of 77.4% and 84.8% downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 proteins, respectively, after treatment with cinnamic aldehyde at 50 μM compared with the LPS-alone (Figure 3(b)). And the intensity of protein bands showed an average of 82.6% and 86.2% upregulation of NF-κB and IκBα protein (P < 0.001) (Figure 4(b)).


Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo.

Liao JC, Deng JS, Chiu CS, Hou WC, Huang SS, Shie PH, Huang GJ - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Cells were incubated for 24 h with 100 ng/mL of LPS in the absence or the presence of samples (50 μM). Samples were added 1 h before incubation with LPS. Lysed cells were then prepared and subjected to western blotting using an antibody specific for iNOS and COX-2. β-actin was used as an internal control. (a) A representative western blot from two separate experiments is shown. (b) Relative iNOS and COX-2 protein levels were calculated with reference to an LPS-stimulated culture. ###compared with sample of control group. The data were presented as mean ± S.D. for three different experiments performed in triplicate. *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001 were compared with LPS-alone group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3318905&req=5

fig3: Inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Cells were incubated for 24 h with 100 ng/mL of LPS in the absence or the presence of samples (50 μM). Samples were added 1 h before incubation with LPS. Lysed cells were then prepared and subjected to western blotting using an antibody specific for iNOS and COX-2. β-actin was used as an internal control. (a) A representative western blot from two separate experiments is shown. (b) Relative iNOS and COX-2 protein levels were calculated with reference to an LPS-stimulated culture. ###compared with sample of control group. The data were presented as mean ± S.D. for three different experiments performed in triplicate. *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001 were compared with LPS-alone group.
Mentions: In order to investigate whether the inhibition of NO production was due to a decreased iNOS, COX-2, IκBα, and NF-κB protein level, the effect of cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin was studied by immunoblot. The results showed the incubation with cinnamic aldehyde (50 μM) in the presence of LPS (100 ng/mL) for 24 h or 1 h inhibited iNOS, COX-2, IκBα, and NF-κB proteins expression in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells in the cytosol (Figures 3(a) and 4(a)). The detection of β-actin was also performed in the same blot as an internal control. The intensity of protein bands was analyzed by using Kodak Quantity software in three independent experiments and it showed an average of 77.4% and 84.8% downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 proteins, respectively, after treatment with cinnamic aldehyde at 50 μM compared with the LPS-alone (Figure 3(b)). And the intensity of protein bands showed an average of 82.6% and 86.2% upregulation of NF-κB and IκBα protein (P < 0.001) (Figure 4(b)).

Bottom Line: Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly.Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE(2) levels on the serum level after Carr injection.These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE(2) levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus