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Effect of seasonality and ecological factors on the prevalence of the four malaria parasite species in northern mali.

Koita OA, Sangaré L, Sango HA, Dao S, Keita N, Maiga M, Mounkoro M, Fané Z, Maiga AS, Traoré K, Diallo A, Krogstad DJ - J Trop Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Results.Smear positivity was associated with splenomegaly (P = 0.007).Malaria was mesoendemic; 4 species circulates with a seasonal fluctuation for Plasmodium falciparum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Bamako, BP 2191, Bamako, Mali.

ABSTRACT
Background. We performed 2 cross-sectional studies in Ménaka in the Northeastern Mali across 9 sites in different ecological settings: 4 sites have permanent ponds, 4 without ponds, and one (City of Ménaka) has a semipermanent pond. We enrolled 1328 subjects in May 2004 (hot dry season) and 1422 in February 2005 (cold dry season) after the rainy season. Objective. To examine the seasonality of malaria parasite prevalence in this dry northern part of Mali at the edge of the Sahara desert. Results. Slide prevalence was lower in hot dry than cold dry season (4.94 versus 6.85%, P = 0.025). Gametocyte rate increased to 0.91% in February. Four species were identified. Plasmodium falciparum was most prevalent (74.13 and 63.72%). P. malariae increased from 9.38% to 22.54% in February. In contrast, prevalence of P. vivax was higher (10.31%) without seasonal variation. Smear positivity was associated with splenomegaly (P = 0.007). Malaria remained stable in the villages with ponds (P = 0.221); in contrast, prevalence varied between the 2 seasons in the villages without ponds (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Malaria was mesoendemic; 4 species circulates with a seasonal fluctuation for Plasmodium falciparum.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of study area. This map shows the 9 sites where the study was performed. Andéramboukane (has a permanent pond) and Talgalat (semipermanent pond, dry at the end of the year) are located near the border with the Republic of Niger (North of Mali). Tin-abaw and and N'gouyass separated by a permanent pound are located between Ménaka and Andéramboukane. Inekar and Anuzegreen that are also located between Menaka and Andéramboukane do not have ponds. Sites such as Tabangout (10 km from Ménaka) and Tidarmane-Ikadewane that are situated in the south of Ménaka, do not have ponds. Ménaka, the capital city, has a semipermanent pond.
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fig1: Map of study area. This map shows the 9 sites where the study was performed. Andéramboukane (has a permanent pond) and Talgalat (semipermanent pond, dry at the end of the year) are located near the border with the Republic of Niger (North of Mali). Tin-abaw and and N'gouyass separated by a permanent pound are located between Ménaka and Andéramboukane. Inekar and Anuzegreen that are also located between Menaka and Andéramboukane do not have ponds. Sites such as Tabangout (10 km from Ménaka) and Tidarmane-Ikadewane that are situated in the south of Ménaka, do not have ponds. Ménaka, the capital city, has a semipermanent pond.

Mentions: The District of Ménaka is located in the northern-East between longitude 1°20 and 4°15 East and latitude 15°20 and 18° north. It is limited by Tinessako (Region of Kidal) in the North, Niger in the East, and by Ansongo in the West (Figure 1). The height above sea level varies between 280 and 350 mm. There are two main seasons (dry and rainy). In dry season, Ménaka is arid with average of temperature of 38°C (varying from 25 to 45°C); it begins from November to May and the rainy season from June to October. Annual rainfall oscillates between 150 mm in the North and 300 mm in the South. This study has been carried out in 9 rural communes and the district of Ménaka. Population of Ménaka is in majority farmers and nomadic breeders [11]. According to the administrative census of 1998, population of Ménaka counts about 73116 inhabitants with a density less than one inhabitant per km2. Since 1998, 18% of the populations settled permanently in cities of Ménaka, Andéramboukane, and Inékar. The rest of the population (82%) settled in the nomadic camps around the ponds. The main ethnic group is Kel Tamacheq (nomadic inhabitants), they are about 95%, and the minority groups are seminomadic Sonrhaïs, Haoussas, and Maures. The Daoussahaqs are persons of mixed race of Touaregs and Sonrhaï and speak a dialect close to these two languages. They represent the majority of the active population in sectors of agriculture and cattle breeding [11].


Effect of seasonality and ecological factors on the prevalence of the four malaria parasite species in northern mali.

Koita OA, Sangaré L, Sango HA, Dao S, Keita N, Maiga M, Mounkoro M, Fané Z, Maiga AS, Traoré K, Diallo A, Krogstad DJ - J Trop Med (2012)

Map of study area. This map shows the 9 sites where the study was performed. Andéramboukane (has a permanent pond) and Talgalat (semipermanent pond, dry at the end of the year) are located near the border with the Republic of Niger (North of Mali). Tin-abaw and and N'gouyass separated by a permanent pound are located between Ménaka and Andéramboukane. Inekar and Anuzegreen that are also located between Menaka and Andéramboukane do not have ponds. Sites such as Tabangout (10 km from Ménaka) and Tidarmane-Ikadewane that are situated in the south of Ménaka, do not have ponds. Ménaka, the capital city, has a semipermanent pond.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3316987&req=5

fig1: Map of study area. This map shows the 9 sites where the study was performed. Andéramboukane (has a permanent pond) and Talgalat (semipermanent pond, dry at the end of the year) are located near the border with the Republic of Niger (North of Mali). Tin-abaw and and N'gouyass separated by a permanent pound are located between Ménaka and Andéramboukane. Inekar and Anuzegreen that are also located between Menaka and Andéramboukane do not have ponds. Sites such as Tabangout (10 km from Ménaka) and Tidarmane-Ikadewane that are situated in the south of Ménaka, do not have ponds. Ménaka, the capital city, has a semipermanent pond.
Mentions: The District of Ménaka is located in the northern-East between longitude 1°20 and 4°15 East and latitude 15°20 and 18° north. It is limited by Tinessako (Region of Kidal) in the North, Niger in the East, and by Ansongo in the West (Figure 1). The height above sea level varies between 280 and 350 mm. There are two main seasons (dry and rainy). In dry season, Ménaka is arid with average of temperature of 38°C (varying from 25 to 45°C); it begins from November to May and the rainy season from June to October. Annual rainfall oscillates between 150 mm in the North and 300 mm in the South. This study has been carried out in 9 rural communes and the district of Ménaka. Population of Ménaka is in majority farmers and nomadic breeders [11]. According to the administrative census of 1998, population of Ménaka counts about 73116 inhabitants with a density less than one inhabitant per km2. Since 1998, 18% of the populations settled permanently in cities of Ménaka, Andéramboukane, and Inékar. The rest of the population (82%) settled in the nomadic camps around the ponds. The main ethnic group is Kel Tamacheq (nomadic inhabitants), they are about 95%, and the minority groups are seminomadic Sonrhaïs, Haoussas, and Maures. The Daoussahaqs are persons of mixed race of Touaregs and Sonrhaï and speak a dialect close to these two languages. They represent the majority of the active population in sectors of agriculture and cattle breeding [11].

Bottom Line: Results.Smear positivity was associated with splenomegaly (P = 0.007).Malaria was mesoendemic; 4 species circulates with a seasonal fluctuation for Plasmodium falciparum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Bamako, BP 2191, Bamako, Mali.

ABSTRACT
Background. We performed 2 cross-sectional studies in Ménaka in the Northeastern Mali across 9 sites in different ecological settings: 4 sites have permanent ponds, 4 without ponds, and one (City of Ménaka) has a semipermanent pond. We enrolled 1328 subjects in May 2004 (hot dry season) and 1422 in February 2005 (cold dry season) after the rainy season. Objective. To examine the seasonality of malaria parasite prevalence in this dry northern part of Mali at the edge of the Sahara desert. Results. Slide prevalence was lower in hot dry than cold dry season (4.94 versus 6.85%, P = 0.025). Gametocyte rate increased to 0.91% in February. Four species were identified. Plasmodium falciparum was most prevalent (74.13 and 63.72%). P. malariae increased from 9.38% to 22.54% in February. In contrast, prevalence of P. vivax was higher (10.31%) without seasonal variation. Smear positivity was associated with splenomegaly (P = 0.007). Malaria remained stable in the villages with ponds (P = 0.221); in contrast, prevalence varied between the 2 seasons in the villages without ponds (P = 0.004). Conclusion. Malaria was mesoendemic; 4 species circulates with a seasonal fluctuation for Plasmodium falciparum.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus