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Acquisition of aluminium tolerance by modification of a single gene in barley.

Fujii M, Yokosho K, Yamaji N, Saisho D, Yamane M, Takahashi H, Sato K, Nakazono M, Ma JF - Nat Commun (2012)

Bottom Line: We find that the primary function of this protein is to release citrate from the root pericycle cells to the xylem to facilitate the translocation of iron from roots to shoots.The altered HvAACT1 has an important role in detoxifying aluminium by secreting citrate to the rhizosphere.Thus, the insertion of a 1-kb sequence in the HvAACT1 upstream enables barley to adapt to acidic soils.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki 710-0046, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Originating from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, barley has now been cultivated widely on different soil types including acid soils, where aluminium toxicity is a major limiting factor. Here we show that the adaptation of barley to acid soils is achieved by the modification of a single gene (HvAACT1) encoding a citrate transporter. We find that the primary function of this protein is to release citrate from the root pericycle cells to the xylem to facilitate the translocation of iron from roots to shoots. However, a 1-kb insertion in the upstream of the HvAACT1 coding region occurring only in the Al-tolerant accessions, enhances its expression and alters the location of expression to the root tips. The altered HvAACT1 has an important role in detoxifying aluminium by secreting citrate to the rhizosphere. Thus, the insertion of a 1-kb sequence in the HvAACT1 upstream enables barley to adapt to acidic soils.

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Haplotype network among ten haplotypes of HvAACT1.Haplotype network is constructed using both substitution and Indel polymorphisms by the maximum-parsimony criterion (heuristic search) in PAUP*. Thin and bold lines represent base substitution and Indel mutations, respectively. Asterisks indicate inferred intermediate haplotypes. Numbers above or next to the lines indicate the variable position. A 1-kb insertion in the 5′-flanking region is marked by an arrow. One homoplasious 1-bp insertion is marked by dotted lines. Observed haplotypes in wild barley are shown in circles, and in cultivated barley in squares.
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f6: Haplotype network among ten haplotypes of HvAACT1.Haplotype network is constructed using both substitution and Indel polymorphisms by the maximum-parsimony criterion (heuristic search) in PAUP*. Thin and bold lines represent base substitution and Indel mutations, respectively. Asterisks indicate inferred intermediate haplotypes. Numbers above or next to the lines indicate the variable position. A 1-kb insertion in the 5′-flanking region is marked by an arrow. One homoplasious 1-bp insertion is marked by dotted lines. Observed haplotypes in wild barley are shown in circles, and in cultivated barley in squares.

Mentions: A haplotype network was constructed to examine whether the 1-kb insertion is of single or multiple origins (Fig. 6). The accessions with the 1-kb insertion belong to the haplotype 10, which originated from the haplotype 1 (Supplementary Fig. S6). The relationship between haplotype 10 (with insertion) and haplotype 1 (without insertion) is also supported by the phylogeny of substitution mutations (Supplementary Fig. S6) derived from the Supplementary Table S2. These results indicate that the 1-kb insertion is from a single origin during the expansion of barley cultivation onto the acid soil areas.


Acquisition of aluminium tolerance by modification of a single gene in barley.

Fujii M, Yokosho K, Yamaji N, Saisho D, Yamane M, Takahashi H, Sato K, Nakazono M, Ma JF - Nat Commun (2012)

Haplotype network among ten haplotypes of HvAACT1.Haplotype network is constructed using both substitution and Indel polymorphisms by the maximum-parsimony criterion (heuristic search) in PAUP*. Thin and bold lines represent base substitution and Indel mutations, respectively. Asterisks indicate inferred intermediate haplotypes. Numbers above or next to the lines indicate the variable position. A 1-kb insertion in the 5′-flanking region is marked by an arrow. One homoplasious 1-bp insertion is marked by dotted lines. Observed haplotypes in wild barley are shown in circles, and in cultivated barley in squares.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3316887&req=5

f6: Haplotype network among ten haplotypes of HvAACT1.Haplotype network is constructed using both substitution and Indel polymorphisms by the maximum-parsimony criterion (heuristic search) in PAUP*. Thin and bold lines represent base substitution and Indel mutations, respectively. Asterisks indicate inferred intermediate haplotypes. Numbers above or next to the lines indicate the variable position. A 1-kb insertion in the 5′-flanking region is marked by an arrow. One homoplasious 1-bp insertion is marked by dotted lines. Observed haplotypes in wild barley are shown in circles, and in cultivated barley in squares.
Mentions: A haplotype network was constructed to examine whether the 1-kb insertion is of single or multiple origins (Fig. 6). The accessions with the 1-kb insertion belong to the haplotype 10, which originated from the haplotype 1 (Supplementary Fig. S6). The relationship between haplotype 10 (with insertion) and haplotype 1 (without insertion) is also supported by the phylogeny of substitution mutations (Supplementary Fig. S6) derived from the Supplementary Table S2. These results indicate that the 1-kb insertion is from a single origin during the expansion of barley cultivation onto the acid soil areas.

Bottom Line: We find that the primary function of this protein is to release citrate from the root pericycle cells to the xylem to facilitate the translocation of iron from roots to shoots.The altered HvAACT1 has an important role in detoxifying aluminium by secreting citrate to the rhizosphere.Thus, the insertion of a 1-kb sequence in the HvAACT1 upstream enables barley to adapt to acidic soils.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki 710-0046, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Originating from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, barley has now been cultivated widely on different soil types including acid soils, where aluminium toxicity is a major limiting factor. Here we show that the adaptation of barley to acid soils is achieved by the modification of a single gene (HvAACT1) encoding a citrate transporter. We find that the primary function of this protein is to release citrate from the root pericycle cells to the xylem to facilitate the translocation of iron from roots to shoots. However, a 1-kb insertion in the upstream of the HvAACT1 coding region occurring only in the Al-tolerant accessions, enhances its expression and alters the location of expression to the root tips. The altered HvAACT1 has an important role in detoxifying aluminium by secreting citrate to the rhizosphere. Thus, the insertion of a 1-kb sequence in the HvAACT1 upstream enables barley to adapt to acidic soils.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus